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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act

Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act

Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C.
Description: This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available.
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Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Federal Assistance Programs

Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Federal Assistance Programs

Date: December 27, 2006
Creator: Fairman Cooper, Edith
Description: The impact on children of domestic violence was an issue of interest in the 109th Congress. The first session of the 109th Congress ended with the passage of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-162), which contained new initiatives to address concerns about children and youth exposed to and victimized by domestic violence. This report discusses existing federal programs and initiatives that have been established to assist such children and youth, and new provisions enacted in P.L. 109-162.
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Welfare Reauthorization in the 109th Congress: An Overview

Welfare Reauthorization in the 109th Congress: An Overview

Date: January 23, 2007
Creator: Falk, Gene; Gish, Melinda & Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: This report discuses the welfare re-authorization legislation, Enactment of the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005, the program operated under a series of 12 “temporary extension” measures.
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Medicaid: A Primer

Medicaid: A Primer

Date: January 24, 2007
Creator: Herz, Elicia J.
Description: This report describes the basic elements of Medicaid, focusing on federal rules governing who is eligible, what services are covered, how the program is financed and how beneficiaries share in the cost, how providers are paid, and the role of special waivers in expanding eligibility and modifying benefits. The recently passed Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 or DRA, as amended by the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, included many provisions affecting Medicaid. DRA provides states with opportunities to make fundamental changes in Medicaid program design, including covered benefits and beneficiary cost-sharing. These and other major DRA changes are summarized here. Lastly, basic program statistics and citations to in-depth CRS reports on specific topics are provided.
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Child Welfare: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Benefits for Children in Foster Care

Child Welfare: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Benefits for Children in Foster Care

Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Fernandes, Adrienne L.; Szymendera, Scott & Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the foster care system and the Social Security benefits available to eligible children, including those in foster care. It then describes the role of representative payees and their responsibilities. The report provides data on the use of Social Security benefits to reimburse states for child welfare, and includes a discussion of the Keffeler decision. Finally, the report concludes with proposals supported by some advocates to change the current practice of using SSI and other Social Security benefits to fund foster care, as well as with a discussion of state initiatives to screen all foster children for Social Security and to pass along some benefits to eligible children.
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Child Support Provisions Considered But Not Enacted During the 2002-2005 Welfare Reauthorization Debate

Child Support Provisions Considered But Not Enacted During the 2002-2005 Welfare Reauthorization Debate

Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: Although the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (enacted February 8, 2006) included significant changes to the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program, it did not include many of the child support provisions that had been considered during the preceding four-year debate within the context of welfare reauthorization. This report discusses 12 such provisions that were passed by either the House or the Senate Finance Committee (or both). The Administration has included several of these provisions in its FY2008 budget.
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Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A Fact Sheet

Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A Fact Sheet

Date: January 8, 2008
Creator: Szymendera, Scott
Description: The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Title XVI of the Social Security Act, was enacted in 1972 and implemented in 1974 to assure a minimum cash income to all aged, blind, or disabled persons. SSI is provided to eligible aged or disabled individuals or couples who have limited income and resources.
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Child Welfare: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Benefits for Children in Foster Care

Child Welfare: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Benefits for Children in Foster Care

Date: January 22, 2008
Creator: Fernandes, Adrienne L.; Szymendera, Scott & Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the foster care system and the Social Security benefits available to eligible children, including those in foster care. It then describes the role of representative payees and their responsibilities. The report provides data on the use of Social Security benefits to reimburse states for child welfare, and includes a discussion of the Keffeler decision. Finally, the report concludes with proposals supported by some advocates to change the current practice of using SSI and other Social Security benefits to fund foster care (including legislation introduced in the 110th Congress), as well as with a discussion of state initiatives to screen all foster children for Social Security and to pass along some benefits to eligible children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Jackson, Pamela J.
Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare Issues in the 110th Congress

Child Welfare Issues in the 110th Congress

Date: February 26, 2008
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: As the U.S. Constitution has been interpreted, states have the primary obligation to ensure child welfare. However, Congress provides significant federal funds to help states exercise this responsibility ($7.9 billion appropriated in FY2008). Most of this support is provided for children who are in foster care and who meet specific federal eligibility criteria. This report discusses the federal framework for child welfare policy; reviews the scope of activities, and children and families served, by state child welfare agencies; summarizes several child welfare-related hearings that were held in 2007; describes child welfare and related legislative proposals that have been introduced in the 110th Congress; and reviews child welfare programs for which funding authorization has expired or is set to expire on the last day of FY2008.
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Medicaid Citizenship Documentation

Medicaid Citizenship Documentation

Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: Grady, April
Description: Due to recent changes in federal law, individuals who declare that they are citizens for Medicaid eligibility purposes must present documentation that proves citizenship and documents personal identity. This report discusses issues related to Medicaid citizenship documentation that have received considerable media and interest group attention, as well as proposed legislation that would affect the requirement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Youth Transitioning From Foster Care: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Youth Transitioning From Foster Care: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Fernandes, Adrienne L.
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the characteristics of older foster youth in care and the types of outcomes experienced by youth who have recently emancipated. The report then provides an overview of the federal foster care system, including the Chafee Foster Care Independence program, and provisions in federal foster care law that are intended to help prepare youth for adulthood. The report goes on to discuss other federal support -- through other programs -- for youth aging out of care in the areas of education, health care, employment, and housing. The report seeks to understand how states vary in their approaches to serving older youth in care and those who are recently emancipated. The report also intends to demonstrate that, despite negative outcomes for the group on average, many former foster youth are engaged in decisions about the services they receive and display resiliency. The report concludes with a discussion of issues that Congress may wish to consider, as well as pending legislation relevant to each of the issues.
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Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges

Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando & Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a deepening food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and underdevelopment that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report follows the current situation in Haiti and key legislative initiatives designed to help address Haiti's many challenges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare Issues in the 110th Congress

Child Welfare Issues in the 110th Congress

Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: As the U.S. Constitution has been interpreted, states have the primary obligation to ensure child welfare. However, Congress provides significant federal funds to help states exercise this responsibility ($7.9 billion appropriated in FY2008). Most of this support is provided for children who are in foster care and who meet specific federal eligibility criteria. This report discusses the federal framework for child welfare policy; reviews the scope of activities, and children and families served, by state child welfare agencies; summarizes several child welfare-related hearings that were held in 2007; describes child welfare and related legislative proposals that have been introduced in the 110th Congress; and reviews child welfare programs for which funding authorization has expired or is set to expire on the last day of FY2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Estimated Allocations

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Estimated Allocations

Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). This report contains two tables that show estimated LIHEAP allocations to the states. Table 1 shows state allocations at various levels: (1) the amount appropriated for FY2006, (2) the amount appropriated for FY2007, (3) the amount appropriated in FY2008, and (4) estimated state allocations based on the amount requested by the President for FY2009. Table 2 shows estimated state allocations at other hypothetical appropriations increments.
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An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding

The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding

Date: September 18, 2008
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report describes appropriations of Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP) funds for FY2008 and FY2007. It also discusses current issues and legislation related to LIHEAP. The report also discusses LIHEAP rules, including household eligibility and how funds may be used, and presents the most recent data available from HHS regarding household characteristics and benefit levels. Finally, the last section discusses how each category of LIHEAP funds is distributed to states, as well as a breakdown of funds to the states during the last several fiscal years.
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Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2007

Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2007

Date: October 3, 2008
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Description: This report describes the income and poverty status of the 36.8 million Americans age 65 and older who were living in households in 2007. The report also describes how the proportion of total income received from each source differs between high-income individuals and households and low-income individuals and households.
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Child Welfare: The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008

Child Welfare: The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008

Date: October 9, 2008
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report provides an overview of the bill Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (H.R. 6893). The report discusses many of the changes included in the new law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What Happens to SCHIP After March 31, 2009?

What Happens to SCHIP After March 31, 2009?

Date: December 19, 2008
Creator: Peterson, Chris L.
Description: A report about the effects of the end of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Postage Subsidies for Periodicals: History and Recent Developments

Postage Subsidies for Periodicals: History and Recent Developments

Date: January 22, 2009
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report describes and assesses the major federal policies that have subsidized postage for periodicals. These policies have been contentious because they involve disputed principles and vexing implementation issues. Some persons believe that periodicals provide important information about politics and government to U.S. citizens, which helps members of the public to discharge their civic duties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medicaid: The Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)

Medicaid: The Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)

Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Grady, April
Description: This report examines the formula that determines the federal government's share of Medicaid costs for most services, which is established in statute; states must contribute the remaining portion of costs in order to qualify for federal funds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department