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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Marines' Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress
The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an armored amphibious vehicle program that originated two decades ago to replace the 1970s-era Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV). The EFV has experienced a variety of developmental difficulties, resulting in significant program delays and cost growth. While the Marine Corps and Department of Defense remain optimistic about the future of the EFC program, there continue to be major concerns about the EFV's reliability and escalating costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29757/
The Marines' Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress
The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an armored amphibious vehicle program that originated two decades ago to replace the 1970s-era Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV). The EFV has experienced a variety of developmental difficulties, resulting in significant program delays and cost growth. While the Marine Corps and Department of Defense remain optimistic about the future of the EFC program, there continue to be major concerns about the EFV's reliability and escalating costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31460/
Cluster Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress
Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground-launched weapons that release a number of smaller submunitions intended to kill enemy personnel or destroy vehicles. This report discusses the two major international initiatives that address cluster munitions: the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) and negotiations under the UN Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). Currently, the Obama Administration has reiterated U.S. opposition to the CCM, which entered into force August 1, 2010, but is participating in negotiations regarding cluster munitions under the CCW. This report also provides a brief historical overview of cluster munitions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31459/
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments
This report discusses the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans all nuclear explosion and was in 1996 adopted by the U.N. General Assembly but rejected by the U.S. Senate in 1997. This report discusses the Obama Administration's stated goal of pursuing U.S. ratification of the CTBT, although the Administration has mainly focused on securing Senate consent to ratification of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START). This report also discusses other nuclear weapons-related issues as well as the long history of nuclear testing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87314/
Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress
The United States took the early lead in the development of precision strike and has enjoyed a monopoly on these systems for over 20 years. However, many experts agree that the U.S. advantage is eroding as these systems spread. Many experts believe the proliferation of precision strike has already begun and will continue to accelerate as more and more countries continue to develop and purchase precision strike weaponry. The proliferation of precision strike creates potential issues for Congress. These issues include whether the Department of Defense (DOD) is properly taking adversary precision strike weapons into account in its own plans and programs, and whether Congress should approve, reject, or modify proposed DOD programs for responding to those weapons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87229/
Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process
This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87259/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is currently being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the 11 different versions of the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) that have been in service since 1985. There are concerns about the affordability of JLTVs and its redundancy with other tactical wheeled vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87392/
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
This report covers the 2007 Department of Defense (DOD) major procurement initiative to replace most up-armored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles. It looks at the cost and subsequent budgets of this initiative. Among potential issues for congressional consideration are the status of older, unused MRAPS in Afghanistan that are reportedly not being used because of their size and weight; possible redundancies with the MRAP, M-ATV, and the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) programs; and actual Marine M-ATV requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99130/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report includes background on the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) program, which is is currently being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the 11 different versions of the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) that have been in service since 1985. It includes a discussion of recent program activities, foreign participants, budgetary issues, and potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99134/
Kinetic Energy Kill for Ballistic Missile Defense: A Status Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10835/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10176/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
Report concerning the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV), which is currently being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the 11 different versions of the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) that have been in service since 1985. There are concerns about the affordability of JLTVs and its redundancy with other tactical wheeled vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228153/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
Report that examines why there is no longer any foreign interest in the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) program and how the Army's study to revise overall tactical wheeled vehicle requirements might affect the JLTV program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228154/
Cluster Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses the background of cluster munitions in the U.S. military, and the current Department of Defense (DOD) and Obama Administration stances on the topic. It also discusses the two major international initiatives to address cluster munitions: the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) and negotiations under the U.N. Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228152/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
Report that discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227965/
Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and Its Application to India and Pakistan
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Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons
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Navy-Marine Corps Amphibious and Maritime Prepositioning Ship Programs: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress
The Navy is proposing to maintain in coming years a Navy with 31 amphibious ships and an additional squadron of 14 Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), ships. The squadron is intended to implement a new concept called sea basing, under which forces would be staged at sea and used to conduct expeditionary operations ashore with little or no reliance on nearby land bases. Potential oversight issues for Congress include the amphibious-ship force-level goal, the potential affordability and cost-effectiveness of the sea basing concept, and Navy and Marine Corps coordination with other services in developing the concept. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10414/
Cruise Missile Inventories and NATO Attacks on Yugoslavia: Background Information
This short report provides background information on the Air Force’s Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile (CALCM) and the conventionally armed version of the Navy’s Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile (TLAM). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1044/
Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress
Of the 282 ships in the Navy at the end of FY2005, 54 were nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs). The Navy is planning to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including 48 SSNs. The FY2007-FY2001 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) proposes maintaining the one-per-year procurement rate through FY2001, and then increasing the rate to two per year in FY2012. Issues for Congress include the following: Is 48 the correct number of SSNs to meet future needs? Should the start of two-per-year Virginia-class procurement be accelerated from FY2012 to an earlier year, such as FY2009, so as to come closer to maintaining a force of 48 SSNs in the 2020s-2030s? How should the submarine design and engineering base be maintained in coming years? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10419/
Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy -- Issues and Options for Congress
The Navy's FY2007 budget proposes retiring the conventionally-powered aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and reducing the size of the carrier force from 12 ships to 11. One potential issue for Congress is whether the carrier force should include 12 ships or some other number. If a carrier is to be retired in the near term so as to reduce the carrier force to 11 ships, a second potential issue is whether that carrier should be the Kennedy or another ship. Potential alternatives to the Kennedy include the conventionally-powered Kitty Hawk and the nuclear-powered carriers Enterprise and Vinson. A third potential issue for Congress concerns the relative military advantages of different homeporting arrangements for the carrier force. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10398/
Military Airlift: C-17 Program Background
The C-17 Globemaster III is a long-range cargo aircraft operated by the U.S. Air Force since 1993. To date, Congress has funded 190 C-17s for the Air Force. The C-17 program remains a key issue as Congress evaluates the needs of DOD's strategic airlift force. This paper provides program background for the C-17. For more detailed analysis of current issues regarding the C-17 acquisition, see CRS Report RL34264, Strategic Airlift Modernization: Analysis of C-5 Modernization and C-17 Acquisition Issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10719/
The Department of Energy's Tritium Production Program
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used to enhance the explosive yield of every thermonuclear weapon. Tritium has a radioactive decay rate of 5.5% per year and has not been produced in this country for weapons purposes since 1988. To compensate for decay losses, tritium levels in the existing stockpile are being maintained by recycling and reprocessing it from dismantled nuclear weapons. To maintain the nuclear weapons stockpile at the level called for in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) II (not yet in force), however, a new tritium source would be needed by the year 2011. If the START I stockpile levels remain the target, as is now the case, tritium production would be needed by 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1692/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is currently being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the 11 different versions of the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) that have been in service since 1985. There are concerns about the affordability of JLTVs and its redundancy with other tactical wheeled vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10786/
Military Aircraft: The Joint Cargo Aircraft Program
Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) is a joint acquisition program between the Army and Air Force intended to procure a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft capable of meeting Army and Air Force requirements for intra-theater airlift. The C-27J Spartan, built by L-3 Communications, was awarded the JCA contract in 2007. This is an update of a report by William Knight and will be updated as conditions warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10720/
The Marines' Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress
The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an armored amphibious vehicle program that originated two decades ago to replace the 1970s-era Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV). The EFV has experienced a variety of developmental difficulties, resulting in significant program delays and cost growth. While the Marine Corps and Department of Defense remain optimistic about the future of the EFC program, there continue to be major concerns about the EFV's reliability and escalating costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10789/
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1992-1999
This report is prepared annually to provide unclassified quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years. Some general data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world. The data in the report illustrate how global patterns of conventional arms transfers have changed in the post-Cold War and post-Persian Gulf War years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1356/
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Demarcation and Succession Agreements: Background and Issues
This report discusses the content of and issues related to the ABM Treaty Succession and Demarcation Agreements signed in September 1997. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1351/
Military Airlift: C-17 Aircraft Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1145/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. In addition, the United States has expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firing in 1995-1996. However, there is no defense treaty or alliance with Taiwan. Several policy issues are of concern to Congress for legislation, oversight, or other action: 1) the effectiveness of the Administration in applying leverage to improve Taiwan's self-defense as well as to maintain peace and stability; 2) the role of Congress in determining security assistance, defense commitments, or policy reviews; 3) whether trends in the Taiwan Strait are stabilizing or destabilizing and how the Administration's management of policy has affected these trends; and 4) whether the United States would go to war with China and how conflict might be prevented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10484/
Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress
The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is the Navy's highest priority aviation modernization program. The decision to undertake F/A-18E/F Super Hornet program was made during a period of great turbulence in Navy aviation modernization. During this time frame the Navy struggled to identify and implement the best way to modernize its aging fleet of F-14 fighters and A-6E attack aircraft. The Department of Defense is currently facing a shortage of radar and communications jamming capability. The Super Hornet has been approved for international export, but no sales have been made as of June 2006. Key issues surrounding the program relate to the total number of Super Hornets to be procured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10485/
Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
The Navy wants to modernize 84 Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years at a total cost of billions of dollars. The modernizations are intended to ensure that the ships can be operated cost-effectively throughout their entire intended service lives. The program poses several potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10691/
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress
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Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives
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Navy CVN-77 and CVX Aircraft Carrier Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
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MX Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9031/
Military Aircraft, the F/A-18EF Super Hornet Program: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9698/
Unmanned Vehicles for U.S. Naval Forces: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9694/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9753/
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program
This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs938/
Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy - Issues and Options for Congress
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Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
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International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy
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Air Force Aerial Refueling
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Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy - Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9795/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5682/