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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

Date: November 5, 2001
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses the background information, analysis and the recent developments in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program. The F-22 program raises questions about its cost and the need for this aircraft, the capabilities it would have, and the number of these planes needed to meet military requirements. The F-22 has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

Date: January 14, 2002
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses the background information, analysis and the recent developments in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program. The F-22 program raises questions about its cost and the need for this aircraft, the capabilities it would have, and the number of these planes needed to meet military requirements. The F-22 has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

Date: July 3, 2002
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses the background information, analysis and the recent developments in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program. The F-22 program raises questions about its cost and the need for this aircraft, the capabilities it would have, and the number of these planes needed to meet military requirements. The F-22 has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

Date: August 9, 2002
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses the background information, analysis and the recent developments in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program. The F-22 program raises questions about its cost and the need for this aircraft, the capabilities it would have, and the number of these planes needed to meet military requirements. The F-22 has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons:  The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Date: May 24, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: April 25, 2003
Creator: Bone, Elizabeth & Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

Date: October 16, 2002
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses the background information, analysis and the recent developments in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program. The F-22 program raises questions about its cost and the need for this aircraft, the capabilities it would have, and the number of these planes needed to meet military requirements. The F-22 has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crusader XM2001 Self-Propelled Howitzer: Background and Issues for Congress

Crusader XM2001 Self-Propelled Howitzer: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 25, 2002
Creator: Bruner, Edward F & Bowman, Steven R
Description: The Army has been seeking to enhance its self-propelled 155mm artillery capabilities since the late 1970's. Among other tasks, artillery systems provide direct-fire maneuver forces, such as tanks and infantry, with immediate, heavy, indirect fires from a distance. Congress has become actively involved in deciding the fate of the Crusader, whether that be to endorse the DOD cancellation decision, continue the current development schedule, or to choose another option.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
F/A-22 Raptor

F/A-22 Raptor

Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The F-22A Raptor is a next-generation fighter/attack aircraft that features the latest stealth technology to reduce detection by radar. Using more advanced engines and avionics than the current F-15 Eagle, the F-22A is intended to maintain U.S. Air Force capabilities against more sophisticated enemy aircraft and air defenses in the 21st century. This report examines the Air Force’s F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues, and concludes with a synopsis of recent legislative activity on the program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
F/A-22 Raptor

F/A-22 Raptor

Date: March 3, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The F-22A Raptor is a next-generation fighter/attack aircraft that features the latest stealth technology to reduce detection by radar. Using more advanced engines and avionics than the current F-15 Eagle, the F-22A is intended to maintain U.S. Air Force capabilities against more sophisticated enemy aircraft and air defenses in the 21st century. This report examines the Air Force’s F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues, and concludes with a synopsis of recent legislative activity on the program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: May 4, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to military air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is numerous and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. The Air Force’s proposal to lease 100 Boeing 767 aircraft to replace it’s KC-135E fleet is controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods:  Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods: Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Klaus, Jon D
Description: Decisions on the composition of the Air Force aerial refueling fleet were made decades ago, when the primary mission was to refuel long-range strategic bombers. Modifications have been made to many of these tanker aircraft (KC-135s and KC-10s) to make them more effective in refueling fighter aircraft. This report, which will be updated, examines the balance between two different refueling methods in today’s refueling fleet — “flying boom” and “hose-and-drogue.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: September 19, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: November 21, 2005
Creator: Geer, Harlan & Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Date: March 9, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs: An Overview

Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs: An Overview

Date: July 21, 2008
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A.
Description: Iran has an active interest in developing, acquiring, and deploying a broad range of ballistic missiles. This was spotlighted in mid-July 2008 when Iran launched a number of ballistic missiles during military exercises. This report seeks to provide an overview of the reported or suspected variety of Iranian ballistic missile programs. Because there remains widespread public divergence over particulars, however, this report does not provide specificity to what Iran may or may not have, or is in the process of developing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients

U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients

Date: December 2, 2009
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report provides background data on United States arms sales agreements with and deliveries to its major purchasers during calendar years 2001-2008, made through the U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Nuclear Weapon "Pit" Production Options for Congress

U.S. Nuclear Weapon "Pit" Production Options for Congress

Date: February 21, 2014
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan E.
Description: This report begins with a description of plutonium, pits, and pit factory problems. It next considers several pit production options. It notes studies that could provide information to assist Congress in choosing among options, and concludes with several observations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Date: September 28, 1981
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: August 3, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- resuspend enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department