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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
F/A-22 Raptor

F/A-22 Raptor

Date: March 3, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The F-22A Raptor is a next-generation fighter/attack aircraft that features the latest stealth technology to reduce detection by radar. Using more advanced engines and avionics than the current F-15 Eagle, the F-22A is intended to maintain U.S. Air Force capabilities against more sophisticated enemy aircraft and air defenses in the 21st century. This report examines the Air Force’s F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues, and concludes with a synopsis of recent legislative activity on the program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial.
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Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial. This report will be updated as events warrant.
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Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: May 4, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to military air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is numerous and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. The Air Force’s proposal to lease 100 Boeing 767 aircraft to replace it’s KC-135E fleet is controversial.
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Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods:  Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods: Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Klaus, Jon D
Description: Decisions on the composition of the Air Force aerial refueling fleet were made decades ago, when the primary mission was to refuel long-range strategic bombers. Modifications have been made to many of these tanker aircraft (KC-135s and KC-10s) to make them more effective in refueling fighter aircraft. This report, which will be updated, examines the balance between two different refueling methods in today’s refueling fleet — “flying boom” and “hose-and-drogue.”
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Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: September 19, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial.
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: November 21, 2005
Creator: Geer, Harlan & Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
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Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

Date: March 9, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs: An Overview

Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs: An Overview

Date: July 21, 2008
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A.
Description: Iran has an active interest in developing, acquiring, and deploying a broad range of ballistic missiles. This was spotlighted in mid-July 2008 when Iran launched a number of ballistic missiles during military exercises. This report seeks to provide an overview of the reported or suspected variety of Iranian ballistic missile programs. Because there remains widespread public divergence over particulars, however, this report does not provide specificity to what Iran may or may not have, or is in the process of developing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients

U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients

Date: December 2, 2009
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report provides background data on United States arms sales agreements with and deliveries to its major purchasers during calendar years 2001-2008, made through the U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program.
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U.S. Nuclear Weapon "Pit" Production Options for Congress

U.S. Nuclear Weapon "Pit" Production Options for Congress

Date: February 21, 2014
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan E.
Description: This report begins with a description of plutonium, pits, and pit factory problems. It next considers several pit production options. It notes studies that could provide information to assist Congress in choosing among options, and concludes with several observations.
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Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Date: September 28, 1981
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs.
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Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: August 3, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- resuspend enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- reinstate its suspension of enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: July 20, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- reinstate its suspension of enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: May 18, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2003-2010

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2003-2010

Date: September 22, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report is prepared annually to provide Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
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Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period 2004 through 2011. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
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China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis

China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis

Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Kan, Shirley A; Bolkcom, Christopher & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report examines the major, foreign conventional weapon systems that China has acquired or has committed to acquire since 1990, with particular attention to implications for U.S. security concerns. It is not the assumption of this report that China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), will engage in conflict with other forces in Asia. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s, there has been increasing concern about China’s assertiveness in Asia and greater threats against Taiwan.
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Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
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Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Date: November 12, 2003
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues

Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues

Date: November 25, 2002
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues

Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues

Date: February 5, 2003
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department