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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity

Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity

Date: July 10, 2006
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Date: July 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: On June 28, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its proposal to sell 36 F-16 C/D Block 50/52 Falcon combat aircraft to Pakistan at an estimated case value of $3 billion. Some believe that these sales are partly an effort to reward the Pakistani Government for the role it has played in support of U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts, and this consideration is noted in the text of the formal notification of the F-16 sales. Combat aircraft are considered "essential for conducting surprise attacks or initiating large-scale offensive operations." Therefore, the transfer of combat aircraft can be a significant policy decision, especially to a region with known tensions and territorial disputes. It is currently unclear what long-term effects a potential sale of combat aircraft to South Asia might have on U.S. political relations with Pakistan and India, or the political relationship between them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Date: July 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: On June 28, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its proposal to sell 36 F-16 C/D Block 50/52 Falcon combat aircraft to Pakistan at an estimated case value of $3 billion. Some believe that these sales are partly an effort to reward the Pakistani Government for the role it has played in support of U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts, and this consideration is noted in the text of the formal notification of the F-16 sales. Combat aircraft are considered "essential for conducting surprise attacks or initiating large-scale offensive operations." Therefore, the transfer of combat aircraft can be a significant policy decision, especially to a region with known tensions and territorial disputes. It is currently unclear what long-term effects a potential sale of combat aircraft to South Asia might have on U.S. political relations with Pakistan and India, or the political relationship between them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Date: July 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: On June 28, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its proposal to sell 36 F-16 C/D Block 50/52 Falcon combat aircraft to Pakistan at an estimated case value of $3 billion. Some believe that these sales are partly an effort to reward the Pakistani Government for the role it has played in support of U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts, and this consideration is noted in the text of the formal notification of the F-16 sales. Combat aircraft are considered "essential for conducting surprise attacks or initiating large-scale offensive operations." Therefore, the transfer of combat aircraft can be a significant policy decision, especially to a region with known tensions and territorial disputes. It is currently unclear what long-term effects a potential sale of combat aircraft to South Asia might have on U.S. political relations with Pakistan and India, or the political relationship between them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

Date: July 1, 2006
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. In addition, the United States has expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firing in 1995-1996. However, there is no defense treaty or alliance with Taiwan. Several policy issues are of concern to Congress for legislation, oversight, or other action: 1) the effectiveness of the Administration in applying leverage to improve Taiwan's self-defense as well as to maintain peace and stability; 2) the role of Congress in determining security assistance, defense commitments, or policy reviews; 3) whether trends in the Taiwan Strait are stabilizing or destabilizing and how the Administration's management of policy has affected these trends; and 4) whether the United States would go to war with China and how conflict might be prevented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: This report provides an overview of the Administration’s rationale for the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems. It summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: The United States has deployed long-range ballistic missiles as a part of its strategic offensive nuclear forces for more than 40 years. In recent years, analysts both inside and outside the government have suggested that the United States deploy conventional warheads on these missiles. This would provide the United States with the ability to strike promptly anywhere in the world, regardless of the presence of overseas bases or nearby naval forces. Many have expressed concerns about the possibility that other nations, such as Russia or China might misinterpret the launch of a conventionally-armed ballistic missile and conclude that they are under attack with nuclear weapons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy

International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy

Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report provides general background on U.S. policy regarding the international trade in small arms and light weapons (SA/LW). It outlines major questions associated with the international trade in these items, and reviews United States efforts to assist in controlling the illicit transfers of these items. This report will be revised as developments warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress

U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress

Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. These treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. Since 1997, the United States has held 22 "subcritical experiments" at the Nevada Test Site, asserting that these experiments do not violate the CTBT because they cannot produce a self-sustaining chain reaction. The Senate rejected the CTBT on October 13, 1999, and the current Administration under President George W. Bush has indicated that it will continue to oppose the CTBT, will continue to adhere to the test moratorium, is considering modifying existing warheads for use against hard and deeply-buried targets, has not ruled out resumed testing, and has no plans to test.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $739 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-78, the first ship in the CVN-21 class of aircraft carriers, and $45 million in advance procurement funding for the aircraft carrier CVN-79, the second ship in the class. The House version of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill (H.R. 5631) recommends approving this request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)) and CG(X) Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)) and CG(X) Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $2,568 million in partial procurement funding for the first two DDG-1000 destroyers. The House version of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill (H.R. 5631) recommends approving this requested funding to instead fully fund the procurement of one DDG-1000. For a longer discussion of the DDG-1000 and CG(X), see CRS Report FL32109, Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches - Background and Options for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Trident Submarine Conversion (SSGN) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The FY2006 budget completed the funding required in the Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy (SCN) account for the Navy's program to refuel and convert four Trident ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) into cruise-missile-carrying and special operations forces (SOF) support submarines (SSGNs). The first two converted SSGNs reentered service in 2006; the other two are scheduled to reenter service by late 2007. The total estimated cost of the four-boat conversion program is about $4.0 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department