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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s, including the first of a new DDG-51 design variant called the Flight III design, which is to carry a new and more capable radar called the Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795698/
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795627/
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Rules for giving certain types of names to certain types of Navy ships have evolved over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795556/
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795508/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the 2007 restructuring of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The report raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795634/
The Army's M-1 Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses various issues surrounding the M-1 Abrams Tank, the M-2/M-3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), and the M-1126 Stryker Combat Vehicle, centerpieces of the Army's Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs) and Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs). Congress is concerned with the long-term military effectiveness of these vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795859/
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report provides background on the agreement negotiated by Iran and six other countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany--collectively known as the P5+1) regarding Iran's nuclear program, and discusses the implications for U.S.-Iran relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795870/
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles. Any one of these new weapon technologies, if successfully developed and deployed, might be regarded as a "game changer" for defending Navy surface ships against enemy missiles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795818/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report details the 2007 restructuring of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's plans for the LCS program. The LCS program raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795816/
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues surrounding the funding for development of Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC). The Marines are required by law to have the necessary equipment to conduct amphibious operations and land operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795869/
North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?
This report discusses the issue of North Korea's inclusion on the U.S. list of terrorism-supporting countries, which has been a major issue in U.S.-North Korean diplomacy since 2000, particularly in connection with negotiations over North Korea's nuclear program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795342/
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report discusses the recently finalized Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) that attempts to ensure that Iran's nuclear program can be used for purely peaceful purposes, in exchange for a broad suspension of U.S. sanctions and a lifting of those sanctions imposed by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795827/
Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, which is the Navy's highest priority aviation modernization program. The Super Hornet has been approved for international export, but no sales have been made as of June 2006. Key issues surrounding the program relate to the total number of Super Hornets to be procured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795367/
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795437/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). A potential issue for Congress is the possible impact of a year-long continuing resolution on Army and Marine Corps JLTV procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795474/
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program. Congress's decisions on the CVN-78 program could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795416/
Air Force Bomber Contract Awarded
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense's recent announcement of its intention to award the contract to build the new Long Range Strike Bomber (LRS-B) to Northrop Grumman Corporation. The program will continue under the LRS-B name; the Air Force has not yet assigned the aircraft a "B-3"-style type designation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795710/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795747/
North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?
This report discusses the issue of North Korea's inclusion on the U.S. list of terrorism-supporting countries, which has been a major issue in U.S.-North Korean diplomacy since 2000, particularly in connection with negotiations over North Korea's nuclear program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795794/
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments
This report discusses the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the Obama Administration's stated goal of pursuing U.S. ratification of the CTBT, although the Administration has mainly focused on securing Senate consent to ratification of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795760/
F-22A Raptor
This report examines the Air Force's F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues; and concludes with a synopsis of recent legislative activity on the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770591/
History of the Navy UCLASS Program Requirements: In Brief
This report details the history of Unmanned Carrier Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike (UCLASS) aircraft requirements development through the program's evolution to its current stage. Over time, those requirements have evolved to encompass a less demanding set of capabilities than first envisioned. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770553/
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles: solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP). Any one of these new weapon technologies, if successfully developed and deployed, might be regarded as a "game changer" for defending Navy surface ships against enemy missiles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770579/
The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture: Issues for Congress
This report provides background the detection of and protection against illicit acquisition and use of special nuclear material (SNM) including the global nuclear detection architecture to secure nuclear assets against diversion, theft, and attack. It also discusses related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770567/
Navy Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's proposed FY2009 budget, which requested $2,107.0 million to complete the procurement funding for an 11th Virginia-class (SSN-774) nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN). This boat had already received $756.0 million in prior-year advance procurement funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770632/
Navy Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Navy procurement of Virginia-class (SSN-774) nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) at a rate of one-per-year for the past several years. The procurement rate is scheduled to increase to two boats per year starting in FY2011. A total of 11 boats have been procured through FY2009. The eight Virginia-class submarines to be procured in the five-year period FY2009-FY2013 (boats 11 through 18) are being procured under a multiyear procurement (MYP) arrangement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770613/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the 2007 restructuring of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's plans for the LCS program. The report raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743434/
Cluster Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the background of cluster munitions in the U.S. military, and the current Department of Defense (DOD) and Obama Administration stances on the topic. It also discusses the two major international initiatives to address cluster munitions: the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) and negotiations under the U.N. Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743612/
North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States
This report briefly reviews North Korea's ballistic missile program. In summer 2007, North Korea tested modern, short-range missiles. In February 2009, South Korea reported the DPRK had deployed a new intermediate-range missile. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743634/
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Rules for giving certain types of names to certain types of Navy ships have evolved over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743539/
Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the Administration's rationale for the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles. It also reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems and summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, with a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743594/
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report provides background on the agreement negotiated by Iran and six other countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany--collectively known as the P5+1) regarding Iran's nuclear program. They have finalized a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, (JCPOA) that attempts to ensure that Iran's nuclear program can be used for purely peaceful purposes, in exchange for a broad suspension of U.S. sanctions and a lifting of those sanctions imposed by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. This report discusses the agreement and implications for U.S.-Iran relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743431/
The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments
This report describes the Life Extension Program (LEP), which is meant to replace and maintain aging nuclear warheads. It includes extensive background information, program developments, fiscal year actions from 2006-2009, various policy options and issues, and supplemental information about the topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743366/
How Many UAVs for DOD?
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense's (DOD) projected procurement levels for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones") over the next several years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743340/
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743374/
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Updated "Safeguards" and Net Assessments
This report discusses the possibility of ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which would ban all nuclear explosions, focusing on "Safeguards" that nations can implement unilaterally to protect nuclear security. This report presents the Safeguards, updates them, discusses their implementation, and considers implications for CTBT ratification. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743381/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It includes a brief discussion of the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons; provides some historical background about nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; reviews the issues that have been raised regarding the continued deployment of these weapons; and concludes with a review of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743523/
Navy Ship Names: Background For Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Congress in recent years has proposed, and sometimes passed, legislation regarding the naming of specific ships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743558/
Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the reasoning behind the development of the Navy CG(X) cruiser program, the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743379/
Iran: Efforts to Achieve a Nuclear Accord
This report discusses Iran's nuclear program and diplomatic efforts to forge a comprehensive agreement to keep that program peaceful. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700548/
Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses proposed FY2010 defense budget requests $439.6 million in Air Force research and development funding to begin a new program for acquiring new 179 KC-X aerial refueling tankers. The issue for Congress in FY2010 is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's request for FY2010 research and development funding for the new KC-X program, and whether to take any action to define the acquisition strategy for the new KC-X program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700578/
Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief
This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). Only provisions relating to congressional actions are covered in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700889/
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
This report covers the 2007 Department of Defense (DOD) major procurement initiative to replace most up-armored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles. It looks at the cost and subsequent budgets of this initiative. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700543/
U.S.-Republic of Korea Nuclear Cooperation Agreement
The United States and South Korea have cooperated in the peaceful use of nuclear energy for over 50 years. This cooperation includes commercial power reactor projects as well as research and development work on safety, safeguards, advanced nuclear reactors, and fuel cycle technologies. This report discusses the new civilian nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and South Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700582/
The Army's Future Combat System (FCS): Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes the Future Combat System (FCS) program, which was to be the Army's major research, development, and acquisition program consisting of 14 manned and unmanned systems linked by an extensive communications and information network. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700746/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700725/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700756/
Navy-Marine Corps Strike-Fighter Shortfall: Background and Options for Congress
This report discusses congressional concerns about a projected inventory shortfall in Navy and Marine Corps strike-fighters. Some industry sources believe the shortfall is likely to be much larger than the Navy currently projects. Options for addressing the shortfall include extending strike-fighter service lives and increasing planned procurement of strike-fighters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700748/
F-22A Raptor
This report examines the Air Force's F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues, and concludes with a synopsis of recent legislative activity on the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700711/
Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe
This report discusses how successive U.S. governments have urged the creation of an anti-missile system to protect against long-range ballistic missile threats from adversary states. The proposed U.S. system has encountered resistance in some European countries and beyond. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700902/
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