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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2005
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: September 19, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial.
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Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods:  Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods: Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Klaus, Jon D
Description: Decisions on the composition of the Air Force aerial refueling fleet were made decades ago, when the primary mission was to refuel long-range strategic bombers. Modifications have been made to many of these tanker aircraft (KC-135s and KC-10s) to make them more effective in refueling fighter aircraft. This report, which will be updated, examines the balance between two different refueling methods in today’s refueling fleet — “flying boom” and “hose-and-drogue.”
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Airborne Laser (ABL): Issues for Congress

Airborne Laser (ABL): Issues for Congress

Date: August 18, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Hildreth, Steven A
Description: This report examines the airborne laser (ABL) program and budget status. It also examines a variety of related issues, including the questionable maturity of ABL technologies, the number of ABL platforms the United States should acquire, and to what degree the United STates should invest in alternative technologies in the event that the ABL may not prove successful. This report does not provide a detailed technical assessment of the ABL program (see CRS Report RL30185, The Airborne Laser Anti-Missile Program).
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Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security

Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security

Date: May 6, 2005
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H & Thomas, John R
Description: In the 109th Congress, several bills have been introduced, including S. 3, the Protecting America in the War on Terror Act, and S. 975, the Project Bioshield II Act, that would generate additional incentives for the creation of new technologies to counteract potential biological threats. These bills propose reforms to current policies and practices associated with intellectual property, particularly patents, and the marketing of pharmaceuticals and related products. This report includes patents and innovation, the role of patents in pharmaceutical/biomedical R&D, legislative developments and proposals for change.
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"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

Date: June 23, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
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"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

Date: July 6, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
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"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

"Bunker Busters": Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Issues, FY2005 and FY2006

Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) program has been the most controversial nuclear weapon program in Congress for the last several years. Supporters argue that it is needed to attack hard and deeply buried targets (such as leadership bunkers) in countries of concern, thereby deterring or defeating challenges from such nations; critics assert that RNEP would lower the threshold for use of nuclear weapons and prompt other nations to develop nuclear weapons to deter U.S. attack. This report presents a brief technical background on RNEP, then discusses the history of RNEP in Congress and the Administration for the FY2005 and FY2006 budget cycles.
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"Bunker Busters": Sources of Confusion in the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Debate

"Bunker Busters": Sources of Confusion in the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Debate

Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: Earth penetrator weapons, often called “bunker busters,” burrow into the ground some tens of feet before detonating, greatly increasing their ability to destroy buried targets. The United States has several types of conventional earth penetrators. The Air Force and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) are studying a more effective penetrator, the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP). The FY2005 defense authorization act contained the full RNEP request, $27.6 million. This report explains the budget request and provides details on the RNEP plan.
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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: April 5, 2005
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: February 22, 2005
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 22, 2005
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Deepwater program is a $24-billion, 25-year acquisition program to replace or modernize 93 Coast Guard ships and 207 Coast Guard aircraft. The Coast Guard’s FY2006 budget requests $966 million for the program. Some Members of Congress have strongly criticized the Deepwater program on several grounds. The House version of H.R. 2360, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations bill, reduces the FY2006 Deepwater funding request to $500 million; the Senate version reduces it to $905.6 million.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Deepwater program is a $24-billion, 25-year acquisition program to replace or modernize 93 Coast Guard ships and 207 Coast Guard aircraft. The Coast Guard’s FY2006 budget requests $966 million for the program. Some Members of Congress have strongly criticized the Deepwater program on several grounds. The House version of H.R. 2360, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations bill, reduces the FY2006 Deepwater funding request to $500 million; the Senate version reduces it to $905.6 million.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Deepwater program is a $24 billion, 25-year acquisition program to replace or modernize 93 Coast Guard ships and 207 Coast Guard aircraft. The Coast Guard's FY2007 budget requests $934.431 million for the program. Some Members of Congress have criticized and expressed strong concerns over the Deepwater program on several grounds. The House-reported version of H.R. 5441, the FY2007 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations bill, recommends $892.64 million for the Deepwater program.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 19, 2005
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Deepwater program is a $24-billion, 25-year acquisition program to replace or modernize 93 Coast Guard ships and 207 Coast Guard aircraft. The Coast Guard’s FY2006 budget requests $966 million for the program. Some Members of Congress have strongly criticized the Deepwater program on several grounds. The House version of H.R. 2360, the FY2006 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations bill, reduces the FY2006 Deepwater funding request to $500 million; the Senate version reduces it to $905.6 million.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: O’Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the Deepwater program, which is a 20- to 25-year acquisition effort to replace or modernize 93 aging Coast Guard ships and 207 aging Coast Guard aircraft. The program’s estimated total acquisition cost is $19 billion to $24 billion. On March 25, 2005 the Coast Guard submitted to Congress a revised implementation plan for the program that alters the planned capabilities and numbers of Deepwater assets and the schedule for acquiring or modernizing them. Some Members of Congress have criticized the revised implementation plan. The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2006 budget requests $966 million for the program.
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Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Date: May 19, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: In March 2005, the Bush Administration announced a willingness to resume sales of F-16 combat aircraft to Pakistan. Potential sales to India are also being considered. These potential sales have political, military, and defense industrial base implications for the United States and the South Asia region. H.R. 1553 and S. 12 would impose nonproliferation conditions on these sales.
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Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Pros and Cons

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Pros and Cons

Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) would ban all nuclear explosions. President Clinton signed it in 1996 and transmitted it to the Senate in 1997. The Senate rejected it in 1999. To enter into force, 44 named nations, including the United States, must ratify the treaty. The Bush Administration opposes ratification but has maintained a moratorium on nuclear testing begun in 1992. This report presents pros and cons of key arguments: the treaty’s implications for nuclear nonproliferation, for maintaining and developing nuclear weapons, for the value of nuclear weapons, and for maintaining U.S. nuclear advantage; monitoring issues; and potential consequences of resuming testing.
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Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1997-2004

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1997-2004

Date: August 29, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report is prepared annually to provide unclassified quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years. Some general data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world. The data in the report illustrate how global patterns of conventional arms transfers have changed in the post-Cold War and post-Persian Gulf War years.
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Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 6, 2005
Creator: Woolf, Amy F
Description: This report provides an overview of the Administration’s rationale for the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems. It summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs.
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Cruise Missile Defense

Cruise Missile Defense

Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Hichkad, Ravi R & Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft — vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload. The Department of Defense is pursuing several initiatives that seek to improve capabilities against an unpredictable cruise missile threat. These initiatives compete for funding and congressional attention.
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Cruise Missile Proliferation

Cruise Missile Proliferation

Date: July 28, 2005
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: Upon the submission of this report, about 75 countries possessed cruise missiles. Many experts predict that anti — ship and land attack cruise missile proliferation will increase in terms of both scope and technological sophistication.
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European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F & Papademetriou, Theresa
Description: This report provides detailed background and legal analysis of the nature of the current European Union embargo on arms exports to China. It also provides detailed background on the European Union’s current Code of Conduct on Arms Exports. A strengthened version of the Code would be one of the control mechanisms that would remain should the EU lift the embargo on arms exports to China. This report also gives information on recent EU arms exports authorized for China. It further summarizes U.S. concerns regarding the lifting of the arms embargo, and notes the prospective timing of EU action on the embargo issue.
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European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy

European Union’s Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy

Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Grimmett, Richard F & Kan, Shirley A
Description: Overall, there are two sets of questions for Congress in examining U.S. policy toward the fate of the EU’s arms embargo on China. What are the implications for U.S. interests in trans-Atlantic relations and China? If U.S. interests are adversely affected, what are some options for Congress to discourage the EU from lifting its arms embargo on China and, if it is lifted, to protect U.S. national security interests in both Asia and Europe? Issues raised by these questions are the subject of this CRS Report.
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F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

Date: August 29, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses the background, status, and current issues of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. The F-35 JSF, also called the Lighting II, is a new strike fighter being procured in different versions by the Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy. The F-35 program is the Department of Defense's (DOD's) largest weapon procurement program in terms of total estimated acquisition cost. This report details the Obama Administration's proposed FY2010 defense budget requests for F-35 program funding and outlines the issues that Congress must consider when deciding whether to approve, reject, or modify the administration's funding requests.
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