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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Date: January 30, 2000
Creator: Behrens, Carl & Humphries, Marc
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues

Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses the documented benefits and potential adverse effects associated with the fluoridation of drinking water supplies. It also discusses the regulation of fluoride in drinking water to protect against adverse health effects from exposure to higher levels of fluoride, and it reviews the status of federal efforts to update the health risk assessment for fluoride.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA): Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Implementation

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA): Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Implementation

Date: January 24, 2007
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: This report discusses the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA), which enacted in 1990 and administered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has funded wetland restoration projects for more than 10 years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: O’Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the Integrated Deepwater Systems (IDS) program, or Deepwater program which is the largest and most complex acquisition effort in Coast Guard history, encompassing 91 new cutters, 124 new small surface craft, and 244 new or converted airplanes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species

Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species

Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: The arrival of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes and their subsequent damage to city water supplies and electric utilities has focused significant attention on ballast water discharge by cargo ships as a high-risk mechanism for species invasion. New management efforts attempt to address this concern. Congress is considering legislative proposals to amend and reauthorize the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act, including specific provisions that would modify how ballast water is managed. This report provides background on various approaches to ballast water management and reviews current ballast water management laws and programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Discount Rate for the Corps of Engineers' Water Resource Projects: Theory and Practice

Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Discount Rate for the Corps of Engineers' Water Resource Projects: Theory and Practice

Date: June 23, 2003
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: Construction of large water resource projects, such as those of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), can be controversial because they involve trade-offs among various river uses, and between current and future generations. Pursuant to federal water project planning guidelines, the Corps weighs these trade-offs using benefit-cost analysis. If its analysis shows that a project’s national economic development (NED) benefits exceed its NED costs, the Corps seeks project authorization from Congress. Congress authorizes the Corps to construct some of these large water projects through (usually) biennial Water Resource Development Acts. Since the Corps rarely recommends a project that does not have a benefit-cost ratio greater than 1.0, this report describes the decisions that influence this ratio, with a focus on the role of the discount rate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations

Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations

Date: February 25, 2011
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses key budgetary issues for FY2011 involving the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill, which provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation, the Department of Energy, and a number of independent agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management

Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management

Date: November 24, 2010
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: The nation's energy choices embody many tradeoffs. Water use is one of those tradeoffs. The energy choices before Congress represent vastly different demands on domestic freshwater. The energy sector's water consumption is projected to rise 50% from 2005 to 2030. This rising water demand derives from both an increase in the amount of energy demanded and shifts to more water-intense energy sources and technologies. This report discusses this issue as well as related issues that may arise for the 112th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues

Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues

Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Carter, Nicole T; Hughes, H. Steven; Sheikh, Pervaze A & Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Financing: Proposals to Create a Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program

Water Infrastructure Financing: Proposals to Create a Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program

Date: May 16, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the "Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act," or WIFIA, program, which is one legislative option to finance water infrastructure projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Inland Waterways: Recent Proposals and Issues for Congress

Inland Waterways: Recent Proposals and Issues for Congress

Date: May 3, 2013
Creator: Stern, Charles V.
Description: This report discusses the major issues for Congress which include whether to increase inland waterway funding in the future (and by what amount); the appropriate type of revenue stream (e.g., fuel taxes or lockage fees) for the user-required portion of these projects; division of the cost-share responsibilities between the federal government and commercial users (e.g., 50/50 or some other division); and whether to initiate process-based recommendations that some argue will improve the delivery and efficiency of Corps-led IWTF projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program

Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Policy makers have recently been considering several legislative options to help finance water infrastructure projects, including projects to build and upgrade wastewater and drinking water treatment systems. This report examines one particular option, a "Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act," or WIFIA, program, which Congress included in the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA). As enacted (P.L. 113-121), the legislation creates a WIFIA pilot program based on provisions in Senate-passed S. 601 with some additions and modifications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Date: December 11, 2014
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Stern, Charles V.
Description: This report provides a description and analysis of H.R. 5781, the California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014, which passed the House December 9, 2014. It includes a summary of key provisions of the bill, and compares it with two other bills from the 113th Congress aiming to address different aspects of drought and water management in California.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Water Infrastructure Funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Carter, Nicole T.; Cody, Betsy A. & Stubbs, Megan
Description: This report identifies funding for water infrastructure programs and projects included in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5). The legislation directs additional appropriations to a number of existing federal programs that either directly invest in water infrastructure projects or provide assistance to states and localities for such activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Resource Issues in the 114th Congress

Water Resource Issues in the 114th Congress

Date: January 23, 2015
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Stern, Charles V. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses recent congressional activity and possible topics for the 114th Congress. It provides an overview of the federal role in water resources development, management, and protection, with a focus on projects of the two major federal water resources agencies--Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps--and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Desalination: Status and Federal Issues

Desalination: Status and Federal Issues

Date: December 30, 2009
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses desalination in the context of federal policy. Interest in desalination of seawater, brackish water, and contaminated freshwater has increased in the United States as the technology's costs have fallen and pressure to develop new water supplies has grown. Adoption of desalination, however, remains constrained by financial, environmental, and regulatory and social factors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) Drought: Federal Water Management Issues

Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) Drought: Federal Water Management Issues

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.; Kaplan, Stan Mark; Buck, Eugene H.; Brougher, Cynthia & Kristina Alexander
Description: This report provides an introductory analysis of federal water management issues in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF), particularly during drought. The report underscores that decision makers are faced with the tradeoff of the current harm that reduced flows may cause aquatic species against the benefits of maintaining water in storage for future multipurpose use later. The first section briefly introduces the basin's water resources and related federal issues. The second section summarizes current federal reservoir operations. The third section discusses how the municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses of ACF waters affect federal reservoir management. The fourth section covers how species protections affect Corps operations and how Corps operations may affect protected species. The fifth section briefly discusses legislation in the 110th Congress related to the ACF and water supply and management issues in the Southeast. The report concludes with comments about the ACF in the broader context of federal CRS-2 water policies and projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Auburn Dam on the American River: Fact Sheet

Auburn Dam on the American River: Fact Sheet

Date: June 6, 1996
Creator: Cody, Betsy A; Hughes, H. Steven & Price, Shelley
Description: For more than 30 years, Congress has debated constructing a dam on the American River near Auburn, California. The Army Corps of Engineers recently identified three alternatives for flood control, with the Division office's preferred plan calling for construction of a 508-foot-high detention dam. Currently, two bills address the issue: H.R. 3270 supports construction of the dam, while H.R. 2951 opposes construction of any structure on the North Fork of the American River.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Date: February 7, 2005
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Date: November 16, 2001
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues

Date: April 29, 2002
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Everglades Restoration: The Federal Role in Funding

Everglades Restoration: The Federal Role in Funding

Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: In 2000, Congress approved a 30-year, $7.8 billion restoration plan, termed the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), for the Everglades ecosystem in southern Florida, and authorized an initial set of projects at a cost of $1.4 billion. This report provides information on federal appropriations for Everglades restoration, and discusses some issues related to the authorization and appropriations for restoration projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Inland Waterways: Recent Proposals and Issues For Congress

Inland Waterways: Recent Proposals and Issues For Congress

Date: July 14, 2011
Creator: Stern, Charles V.
Description: This brief discusses the major issues for Congress which include whether to increase inland waterway funding in the future (and by what amount); the appropriate type of revenue stream (e.g., fuel taxes or lockage fees) for the user-required portion of these projects; division of the cost-share responsibilities between the federal government and commercial users (e.g., 50/50 or some other division); and whether to initiate process-based recommendations that some argue will improve the delivery and efficiency of Corps-led IWTF projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department