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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Issues in the 107th Congress: An Overview
Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act, whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. This Act is the principal law that deals with polluting activity in the nation’s lakes, rivers, and coastal waters and authorizes funds to aid construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending it have been stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2041/
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues
Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The dispute between states and industry groups was a legislative issue in the 104th Congress through an amendment to a House-passed Clean Water Act re-authorization bill; the Senate did not act on that bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs646/
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program
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Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10020/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10044/
Upper Mississippi River - Illinois Waterway Navigation Expansion: An Agricultural Transportation and Environmental Context
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9657/
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10107/
Perchlorate Conatmination of Drinking Water: Regulatory Issues and Legislative Actions
Perchlorate is the explosive component of solid rocket fuel, fireworks, road flares, and other products and is used heavily by the Department of Defense (DOD) and other industries. Perchlorate also occurs naturally. This compound has been detected in drinking water supplies, especially in California. It also has been found in milk and many foods. Because of this widespread occurrence, concern over the potential health risks of perchlorate exposure has increased, and some states and Member of Congress have urged the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a drinking water standard for perchlorate. This report reviews perchlorate water contamination issues and developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10617/
Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water: Regulatory Issues and Legislative Actions
Perchlorate is the explosive component of solid rocket fuel, fireworks, road flares, and other products and is used heavily by the Department of Defense (DOD) and other industries. Perchlorate also occurs naturally. This compound has been detected in drinking water supplies, especially in California. It also has been found in milk and many foods. Because of this widespread occurrence, concern over the potential health risks of perchlorate exposure has increased, and some states and Member of Congress have urged the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a drinking water standard for perchlorate. This report reviews perchlorate water contamination issues and developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10616/
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996 authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) latest (2003) survey of capital improvement needs for public water systems found that water systems need to invest $276.8 billion on infrastructure improvements over 20 years to ensure the provision of safe water. Key issues include the gap between estimated needs and funding, SDWA compliance costs, and the need for cities to update and maintain water infrastructure, apart from SDWA compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10626/
New Orleans Levees and Floodwalls: Hurricane Damage Protection
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New Orleans Levees and Floodwalls: Hurricane Damage Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7477/
Protecting New Orleans: From Hurricane Barriers to Floodwalls
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Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7541/
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7558/
Hurricane Katrina and the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7557/
Phosphorus Mitigation in the Everglades
This report discusses the FY2004 appropriations provisions that condition federal funding for Everglades restoration on compliance with water quality standards, provides a side-by-side analysis of pending appropriations legislation, and provides background and a timeline of efforts to address Everglades phosphorus pollution (from Summary). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7374/
The Supreme Court Addresses Corps of Engineers Jurisdiction Over "Isolated Waters": The SWANCC Decision
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Wetlands Regulation and the Law of Property Rights "Takings"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1350/
Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Reauthorization
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs367/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5637/
Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs366/
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1347/
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1346/
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs821/
Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs89/
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs273/
San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs272/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5636/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3605/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3604/
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs500/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
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Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
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Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1528/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4117/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2364/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2363/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2362/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2361/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4122/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4121/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4120/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4119/
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4118/
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs963/
Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues
This report reviews past and proposed treatment of hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Water Drinking Act, the principal federal statute for regulating the underground injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews current provisions for regulating underground injection activities, and discusses some possible implications of, and issues associated with, enactment of legislation authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate hydraulic fracturing under this statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97999/
Hydropower License Conditions and the Relicensing Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4478/
Hydropower Licenses and Relicensing Conditions: Current Issues and Legislative Activity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4481/
Hydropower Licenses and Relicensing Conditions: Current Issues and Legislative Activity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4480/