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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
35 Years of Water Policy: The 1973 National Water Commission and Present Challenges

35 Years of Water Policy: The 1973 National Water Commission and Present Challenges

Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report presents the National Water Commission's (NWC) recommendations and analyzes how issues targeted by the recommendations have evolved during the intervening years. The report focuses on key federal-level recommendations, thereby targeting what has been accomplished since 1973, what issues remain unresolved, and what additional concerns have developed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aging Infrastructure: Dam Safety

Aging Infrastructure: Dam Safety

Date: September 29, 2005
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: To help inform discussions on the federal role in dam safety, this report provides background information on the nation’s dam safety activities and funding mechanisms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Allocation of Wastewater Treatment Assistance: Formula and Other Changes

Allocation of Wastewater Treatment Assistance: Formula and Other Changes

Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the formula and eligibility changes adopted by Congress since 1972 related to the allocation of wastewater treatment assistance. It focuses on the interplay and decision-making by Congress on factors to include in the formula.
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Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014

Date: December 11, 2014
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Stern, Charles V.
Description: This report provides a description and analysis of H.R. 5781, the California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014, which passed the House December 9, 2014. It includes a summary of key provisions of the bill, and compares it with two other bills from the 113th Congress aiming to address different aspects of drought and water management in California.
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Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA Regulation of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs)

Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA Regulation of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs)

Date: August 31, 2007
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background on the revised environmental rules, the previous Clean Water Act rules and the Clinton Administration proposal, and perspectives of key interest groups on the proposal and final regulations. It also identifies several issues that could be of congressional interest as implementation of the revised rules proceeds.
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Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA's Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs

Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA's Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs

Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the Clean Water Act, which prohibits the discharge of pollutants from any "point source" to waters of the United States unless authorized under a permit that is issued by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a qualified state. The act also expressly defines confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) as point sources.
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Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) Drought: Federal Water Management Issues

Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) Drought: Federal Water Management Issues

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.; Kaplan, Stan Mark; Buck, Eugene H.; Brougher, Cynthia & Kristina Alexander
Description: This report provides an introductory analysis of federal water management issues in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF), particularly during drought. The report underscores that decision makers are faced with the tradeoff of the current harm that reduced flows may cause aquatic species against the benefits of maintaining water in storage for future multipurpose use later. The first section briefly introduces the basin's water resources and related federal issues. The second section summarizes current federal reservoir operations. The third section discusses how the municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses of ACF waters affect federal reservoir management. The fourth section covers how species protections affect Corps operations and how Corps operations may affect protected species. The fifth section briefly discusses legislation in the 110th Congress related to the ACF and water supply and management issues in the Southeast. The report concludes with comments about the ACF in the broader context of federal CRS-2 water policies and projects.
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Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Date: January 30, 2000
Creator: Behrens, Carl & Humphries, Marc
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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The Army Corps of Engineers' Nationwide Permits Program: Issues and Regulatory Developments

The Army Corps of Engineers' Nationwide Permits Program: Issues and Regulatory Developments

Date: January 30, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Permits issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorize various types of development projects in wetlands and other waters of the United States. The Corps' regulatory process involves two types of permits: general permits for actions by private landowners that are similar in nature and will likely have a minor effect on wetlands, and individual permits for more significant actions. The Corps uses general permits to minimize the burden of its regulatory program: they authorize landowners to proceed with a project without the time-consuming need to obtain standard individual permits in advance. About 90% of the Corps' regulatory workload is processed in the form of general permits.
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The Army Corps of Engineers' Nationwide Permits Program: Issues and Regulatory Developments

The Army Corps of Engineers' Nationwide Permits Program: Issues and Regulatory Developments

Date: December 28, 2010
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Congressional interest in wetlands permit regulatory programs has been evident in the past in oversight hearings and in connection with bills to fund the Corps' regulatory programs. For some time, there has been a stalemate over legislation that would revise wetlands regulatory law and that could, if enacted, modify the nationwide permit program. During this time, no consensus has emerged on whether or how to reform overall wetlands policy legislatively. Recently, Obama Administration initiatives and actions intended to restrict harmful effects of surface coal mining activities in Appalachia have drawn congressional attention and criticism that is likely to continue in the 112th Congress and that could include oversight of the Corps' regulatory program generally.
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Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Projects: Authorization and Appropriations

Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Projects: Authorization and Appropriations

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Carter, Nicole T. & Hughes, H. S.
Description: This report explains how the congressional authorization and appropriations process overlays the Corps' project development process. Special attention is given to initiating a water resources study, the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) process, civil works appropriations, and emergency response activities.
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Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species

Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species

Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: The arrival of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes and their subsequent damage to city water supplies and electric utilities has focused significant attention on ballast water discharge by cargo ships as a high-risk mechanism for species invasion. New management efforts attempt to address this concern. Congress is considering legislative proposals to amend and reauthorize the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act, including specific provisions that would modify how ballast water is managed. This report provides background on various approaches to ballast water management and reviews current ballast water management laws and programs.
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California Agricultural Production and Irrigated Water Use

California Agricultural Production and Irrigated Water Use

Date: June 30, 2015
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report provides an overview of California's farm economy, specifically examining the current state of the water supply and the use of irrigation water.
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California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

Date: December 7, 2009
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Folger, Peter & Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report discusses California's current hydrological situation and provides background on regulatory restrictions affecting California water deliveries, as well as on the long-established state water rights system, which also results in uneven water deliveries in times of shortages.
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California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues

Date: August 14, 2015
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Folger, Peter & Brown, Cynthia
Description: This report provides a summary of California's 2012-2015 drought including: comparisons, where applicable, to previous droughts; a summary of the key regulatory requirements that at certain times limit water deliveries (or exports) from the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers' Delta; and a brief discussion of California water rights with their relation to different types of federal contracts and their associated water allocations.
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Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Date: January 17, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program which regulates pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained; section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. The report focuses on new challenges facing the TMDL program, including more complex TMDLs, larger scale impairments, and nonpoint sources.
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Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Date: September 21, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program which regulates pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained; section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. The report focuses on new challenges facing the TMDL program, including more complex TMDLs, larger scale impairments, and nonpoint sources.
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Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The Court revisited these issues in a 2006 ruling that unanimously upheld the states' authority to condition hydropower licenses. The dispute between states and industry groups about Section 401 authority has been a legislative issue on several occasions, but Congress has not responded by modifying the provision's scope. In addition, there has been interest in clarifying whether Section 401 certification applies to nonpoint source discharges, such as rainfall runoff, as well as point source discharges from pipes or ditches.
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Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: O’Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the Integrated Deepwater Systems (IDS) program, or Deepwater program which is the largest and most complex acquisition effort in Coast Guard history, encompassing 91 new cutters, 124 new small surface craft, and 244 new or converted airplanes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
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Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA): Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Implementation

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA): Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Implementation

Date: January 24, 2007
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: This report discusses the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA), which enacted in 1990 and administered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has funded wetland restoration projects for more than 10 years.
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Desalination: Status and Federal Issues

Desalination: Status and Federal Issues

Date: December 30, 2009
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses desalination in the context of federal policy. Interest in desalination of seawater, brackish water, and contaminated freshwater has increased in the United States as the technology's costs have fallen and pressure to develop new water supplies has grown. Adoption of desalination, however, remains constrained by financial, environmental, and regulatory and social factors.
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Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues

Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health.
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Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Date: August 15, 2012
Creator: Folger, Peter; Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report describes the physical causes of drought, drought history in the United States, and policy challenges related to drought. It also provides examples of recurrent regional drought conditions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress

Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Folger, Peter; Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report defines drought and discusses its background and cause in the United States. It looks in detail at the 2007-2009 California drought as well as drought in the American West in general. Lastly, it discusses the future of U.S. drought and how congressional policy can affect drought.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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