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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The Court revisited these issues in a 2006 ruling that unanimously upheld the states' authority to condition hydropower licenses. The dispute between states and industry groups about Section 401 authority has been a legislative issue on several occasions, but Congress has not responded by modifying the provision's scope. In addition, there has been interest in clarifying whether Section 401 certification applies to nonpoint source discharges, such as rainfall runoff, as well as point source discharges from pipes or ditches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Reauthorization

Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Reauthorization

Date: December 3, 1996
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wetlands Regulation and the Law of Property Rights "Takings"

Wetlands Regulation and the Law of Property Rights "Takings"

Date: February 17, 2000
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Supreme Court Addresses Corps of Engineers Jurisdiction Over "Isolated Waters": The SWANCC Decision

The Supreme Court Addresses Corps of Engineers Jurisdiction Over "Isolated Waters": The SWANCC Decision

Date: February 16, 2001
Creator: Meltz, Robert & Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues

Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues

Date: September 21, 1993
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: February 16, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: June 4, 1997
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: July 3, 2002
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: January 7, 2003
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: March 10, 2003
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues

Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues

Date: June 20, 1996
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues

San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues

Date: July 18, 1995
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Funding

Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Funding

Date: September 13, 1995
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182

Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182

Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hydropower License Conditions and the Relicensing Process

Hydropower License Conditions and the Relicensing Process

Date: June 9, 2003
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hydropower License Conditions and the Relicensing Process

Hydropower License Conditions and the Relicensing Process

Date: July 18, 2003
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hydropower Licenses and Relicensing Conditions: Current Issues and Legislative Activity

Hydropower Licenses and Relicensing Conditions: Current Issues and Legislative Activity

Date: August 20, 2003
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hydropower Licenses and Relicensing Conditions: Current Issues and Legislative Activity

Hydropower Licenses and Relicensing Conditions: Current Issues and Legislative Activity

Date: August 27, 2003
Creator: Powers, Kyna
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

Date: May 26, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses four legislative options that Congress could consider to halt or redirect the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineer's proposed "waters of the United States" rule: the Congressional Review Act, appropriations bill limitations, targeted legislation, and broad amendments to the Clean Water Act. Each option faces a steep path to enactment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments

U.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments

Date: November 19, 2013
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.; Seelke, Clare Ribando & Shedd, Daniel T.
Description: This report is a primer on U.S. and Mexican water-sharing topics. It focuses on surface water quantity sharing and recent developments, including drought conditions. Due to Mexico's recent below-target deliveries of Rio Grande water to the United States, particular attention is given to the status, underlying causes, and responses to the Rio Grande water debt. This report describes: legal obligations and processes under the 1944 Water Treaty; drought conditions from 2010 to 2013; water sharing and developments in the Colorado River Basin; water sharing in the Rio Grande Basin and Mexico's water debt; and stakeholder, diplomatic, and legislative responses to Mexico's Rio Grande water debt.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act

Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act

Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department