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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The Court revisited these issues in a 2006 ruling that unanimously upheld the states' authority to condition hydropower licenses. The dispute between states and industry groups about Section 401 authority has been a legislative issue on several occasions, but Congress has not responded by modifying the provision's scope. In addition, there has been interest in clarifying whether Section 401 certification applies to nonpoint source discharges, such as rainfall runoff, as well as point source discharges from pipes or ditches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues

Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues

Date: September 21, 1993
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: February 16, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues

San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues

Date: July 18, 1995
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Issues

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Issues

Date: February 17, 1999
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund (LUST)

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund (LUST)

Date: August 28, 1997
Creator: Noto, Nonna A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

Date: May 26, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses four legislative options that Congress could consider to halt or redirect the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineer's proposed "waters of the United States" rule: the Congressional Review Act, appropriations bill limitations, targeted legislation, and broad amendments to the Clean Water Act. Each option faces a steep path to enactment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act

Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act

Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department