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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Lead in Flint, Michigan's Drinking Water: Federal Regulatory Role

Lead in Flint, Michigan's Drinking Water: Federal Regulatory Role

Date: February 16, 2016
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses the federal regulatory role in regards to drinking water, more specifically in the context of the Flint water crisis. Lead exposure is a major public health concern, particularly because low-level exposures can impair the neurodevelopment of children. The main source of lead in drinking water is the corrosion of plumbing materials in the distribution system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Quality Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview

Water Quality Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview

Date: January 5, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the legislative and oversight issues regarding water quality, as well as wastewater treatment funding issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

EPA and the Army Corps' "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

Date: January 20, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses several options Congress had in order to respond to controversy caused by the May 27th, 2015 rule that was finalized by the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This finalized rule revised regulations that defined the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Congress' legislative options are reflected in bills in the 114th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Date: August 30, 2007
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research. This report presents a summary of the law, describing the essence of the statute.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Date: August 25, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research. Permit and enforcement provisions of the law are often referred to as the Ocean Dumping Act. The basic provisions of the act have remained virtually unchanged since 1972, when it was enacted to establish a comprehensive waste management system to regulate disposal or dumping of all materials into marine waters that are within U.S. jurisdiction, although a number of new authorities have been added. This report presents a summary of the law, describing the essence of the statute.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Date: November 17, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research. This report presents a summary of the law, describing the essence of the statute.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law

Date: April 10, 2007
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research. Permit and enforcement provisions of the law are often referred to as the Ocean Dumping Act. The basic provisions of the act have remained virtually unchanged since 1972, when it was enacted to establish a comprehensive waste management system to regulate disposal or dumping of all materials into marine waters that are within U.S. jurisdiction, although a number of new authorities have been added. This report presents a summary of the law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills: Background and Governance

Oil Spills: Background and Governance

Date: June 16, 2015
Creator: Jonathan L. Ramseur
Description: This report reviews the history and trends of oil spills in the United States, and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Date: August 23, 2007
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report reviews the history and trends of oil spills in the United States, and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance

Date: September 2, 2010
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report provides background information regarding oil spills in U.S. coastal waters and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup. Based on data between 1973 and 2009, the annual number and volume of oil spills have shown declines- in some cases, dramatic declines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Date: April 24, 2007
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report reviews the history and trends of oil spills in the United States, and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, which requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

Date: June 3, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the revised rule of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) which defines the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: On May 3, 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) announced a final rule redefining two key terms, “fill material” and “discharge of fill material,” in regulations that implement Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This report discusses the revised rule, focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector’s Energy Use

Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector’s Energy Use

Date: December 1, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background on energy for facilities that treat and deliver water to end users and also dispose of and discharge wastewater. Energy use for water is a function of many variables, including water source (surface water pumping typically requires less energy than groundwater pumping), treatment (high ambient quality raw water requires less treatment than brackish or seawater), intended end-use, distribution (water pumped long distances requires more energy), amount of water loss in the system through leakage and evaporation, and level of wastewater treatment (stringency of water quality regulations to meet discharge standards).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

EPA and the Army Corps' "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

Date: July 9, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses four legislative options that Congress could consider to halt or redirect the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineer's proposed "waters of the United States" rule.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' Rule to Define "Waters of the United States"

EPA and the Army Corps' Rule to Define "Waters of the United States"

Date: June 29, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the final revised rule defining the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA)--which the agencies refer to as the Clean Water Rule--and includes a table comparing the existing regulatory language that defines "waters of the United States" with the revisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

EPA and the Army Corps' "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

Date: November 5, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses four legislative options that Congress could consider to halt or redirect the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineer's proposed "waters of the United States" rule.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law

Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law

Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report presents a summary of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or Clean Water Act, describing the essence of the statute without discussing its implementation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Microbeads: An Emerging Water Quality Issue

Microbeads: An Emerging Water Quality Issue

Date: July 20, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the debate over how to address growing environmental concerns regarding microbeads (synthetic particles made of either polyethylene or polypropylene plastic) and whether federal regulation to control or ban them is needed. A number of companies are voluntarily removing microbeads from their products, and some states--eight so far--have passed laws to ban manufacture and sale of products with microbeads.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gold King Mine Spill May Renew Interest in "Good Samaritan" Legislation

Gold King Mine Spill May Renew Interest in "Good Samaritan" Legislation

Date: August 27, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses legislation related to an accidental spill from the Gold King Mine, a long-abandoned gold mine site in Colorado, which released acid mine drainage (AMD) wastewater into a tributary of the Animas River and downstream to the San Juan River. The proposed legislation would authorize Good Samaritan remediation, in which third parties who have no history of polluting at a particular site or legal responsibility for its pollution step forward to clean up AMD or other historic mine residue of pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Controversies over Redefining "Fill Material" Under the Clean Water Act

Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: On May 3, 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) announced a regulation redefining two key terms, "fill material" and "discharge of fill material," in rules that implement Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This report discusses the 2002 rule, focusing on how it changes which material and types of activities are regulated under Section 404 and the significance of these issues, especially for the mining industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

EPA and the Army Corps' Proposed "Waters of the United States" Rule: Congressional Response and Options

Date: May 26, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses four legislative options that Congress could consider to halt or redirect the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineer's proposed "waters of the United States" rule: the Congressional Review Act, appropriations bill limitations, targeted legislation, and broad amendments to the Clean Water Act. Each option faces a steep path to enactment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species

Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species

Date: September 2, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report provides background on various approaches to ballast water management and reviews current ballast water management laws and programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department