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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Date: April 24, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren; Blanchard, Christopher M.; O'Rourke, Ronald; Mason, R. Chuck & King, Rawle O.
Description: This report discusses recent (2008-2009) pirate attacks on vessels, including United States vessels, in the waters off the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is sometimes called the Somali Peninsula and includes the nations of Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia. This report explores reasons behind the increased number of pirate attacks in recent years, as well as what efforts are being taken to combat said attacks, including those by the 111th Congress and President Obama and his Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Date: April 27, 2011
Creator: Ploch, Lauren; Blanchard, Christopher M.; O'Rourke, Ronald; Mason, R. Chuck & King, Rawle O.
Description: This report discusses recent (2010) pirate attacks on vessels, including United States vessels, in the waters off the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is sometimes called the Somali Peninsula and includes the nations of Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Somalia. This report explores reasons behind the increased number of pirate attacks in recent years, as well as what efforts are being taken to combat said attacks, including those by the 111th Congress and President Obama and his Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Military Use of Airships and Aerostats

Potential Military Use of Airships and Aerostats

Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) has a history of using lighter-than-air (LTA) platforms. Aerostats have recently been fielded to protect deployed U.S. troops. Contemporary interest is growing in using airships for numerous missions. This report examines the various concepts being considered and describes the issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 26, 2015
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report focuses on the Ohio replacement program as a Navy shipbuilding program. The report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 28, 2015
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on sustaining and modernizing the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Airlift: C-17 Program Background

Military Airlift: C-17 Program Background

Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Knight, William
Description: The C-17 Globemaster III is a long-range cargo aircraft operated by the U.S. Air Force since 1993. To date, Congress has funded 190 C-17s for the Air Force. The C-17 program remains a key issue as Congress evaluates the needs of DOD's strategic airlift force. This paper provides program background for the C-17. For more detailed analysis of current issues regarding the C-17 acquisition, see CRS Report RL34264, Strategic Airlift Modernization: Analysis of C-5 Modernization and C-17 Acquisition Issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles

Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles

Date: February 16, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Elias, Bartholomew
Description: Recent events have focused attention on the threat that terrorists with shoulder fired surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), referred to as Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), pose to commercial airliners. This report discusses SAMs and examines options for mitigating missile threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles

Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles

Date: February 15, 2005
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Feickert, Andrew & Elias, Bartholomew
Description: Recent events have focused attention on the threat that terrorists with shoulder fired surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), referred to as Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), pose to commercial airliners. This report discusses SAMs and examines options for mitigating missile threats.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The General Motors-Toyota Joint Venture and Its Competitive Implications

The General Motors-Toyota Joint Venture and Its Competitive Implications

Date: July 13, 1983
Creator: Bass, Gwenell L
Description: This report reviews the economics of joint ventures by focusing on their implication for market competition. It also reviews the legislative history of mergers and joint ventures with special emphasis on aspects of the law that are directed at reducing market concentration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: November 9, 2015
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act: Background and Issues

The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act: Background and Issues

Date: September 4, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the combination of regulations and standards for controlling vessel discharges, which is at issue today and is addressed in legislation in the 114th Congress, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 23, 2015
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

Date: October 28, 2015
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) and it discusses the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers, which are still in service in a variety of support capacities in Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act

Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Cooney, Stephen & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report examines various programs considered by Congress, including grants and loans, to help automakers with the increased cost of compliance with higher fuel economy standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Repairing and Reconstructing Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges: The Role of Federal-Aid Highway Assistance

Repairing and Reconstructing Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges: The Role of Federal-Aid Highway Assistance

Date: September 16, 2005
Creator: Kirk, Robert S
Description: This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of disaster damaged highways and bridges. It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and describes the ER program in its current form. The report then discusses eligibility issues and program operation. Finally, the report discusses a number of issues, including funding, that may be of interest to Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues

Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues

Date: February 7, 2005
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Description: This report discusses options for airline passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and policy issues related to the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458). The legislation directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Volkswagen, Defeat Devices, and the Clean Air Act: Frequently Asked Questions

Volkswagen, Defeat Devices, and the Clean Air Act: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: February 10, 2016
Creator: Canis, Bill; Lattanzio, Richard K.; Vann, Adam & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides answers to a series of frequently asked questions focusing on a description of modern diesel technologies, their market and emissions profiles, and some potential reasons that could underlie the use of defeat devices. It summarizes the specific allegations filed against VW under the Clean Air Act, the current status of federal and state investigations, and the potential civil and criminal penalties. Further, the report introduces several outstanding issues currently under debate regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) resources and activities, and issues surrounding VW's defeat device.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran-U.S. Air Service Not Imminent

Iran-U.S. Air Service Not Imminent

Date: January 21, 2016
Creator: Tang, Rachel Y.
Description: This report discusses the prospect of air travel between Iran and the U.S., which last operated during 1979, when the U.S. government imposed an embargo on flights following the Iran hostage crisis. Since then, travel and air cargo shipments between the two countries have been routed through third countries, and their extent has been limited by U.S. sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 24, 2016
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), which is the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief

Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief

Date: December 28, 2015
Creator: Mallett, William J.
Description: This report provides an introduction to the public transportation program administered by the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This program was authorized in FY2016 through FY2020 by the Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act (P.L. 114-94). The focus of the federal program is still on the capital side, but the program has evolved to support operational expenses in some circumstances, as well as safety oversight, planning, and research.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 2, 2015
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Coast Guard polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The operational U.S. polar icebreaking fleet currently consists of one heavy polar icebreaker, Polar Star, and one medium polar icebreaker, Healy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Finance: RABA’s Double-edged Sword

Highway Finance: RABA’s Double-edged Sword

Date: May 19, 2003
Creator: Fischer, John W.
Description: This report discusses a possible reduction in federal highway program spending. Congress has chosen to overrule provisions of law that would have reduced the FY2003 spending level to $23.2 billion, and has instead settled on $31.8 billion, the same as the FY2002 level.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues

Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues

Date: February 7, 2005
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Description: The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. It also requires that passengers who are selected for additional screening be screened for explosives, as an interim measure until all passengers can be screened for explosives. Congressional interest in this topic continues in the 109th Congress. This report discusses the current state of passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and related policy issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Date: March 16, 2016
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report focuses on EPA's completed and potential actions to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from mobile sources, relying on the authorities in Title II of the Clean Air Act (CAA). We begin with a brief discussion of the petitions and court action that led to EPA's regulatory decisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department