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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Drunk Driving: Should Each State Be Required to Enact a 0.08 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Law?
At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs622/
The 1995 Japan-U.S. Auto and Parts Trade Dispute: Terms of the Settlement and Implications
On June 28, 1995, the United States and Japan reached a settlement in a long-running dispute over access to Japan's market for automobiles and parts. 100-percent tariffs by the United States on imports of luxury cars from Japan had been threatened under a Section 301 unfair trade practices case dealing with the aftermarket for autoparts in Japan. This report describes the dispute, the settlement, and questions and issues that still remain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs268/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2038/
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: National Standards for Drivers' Licenses, Social Security Cards, and Birth Certificates
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6324/
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6087/
Arming Pilots Against Terrorism: Implementation Issues for the Federal Flight Deck Officer Program
The report discusses the issues regarding the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135), which contains provisions to arm pilots of passenger aircraft and gives deputized pilots the authority to use force, including lethal force, to defend the flight deck against criminal and terrorist threats. The report includes the legislative Background, implementation issues, equipment, training, operational procedures and costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6080/
Highway and Transit Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 2nd Session, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6084/
Interstate Travel: Constitutional Challenges to the Identification Requirement and Other Transportation Security Regulations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6086/
Highway and Transit Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 2nd Session, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6083/
Department of Homeland Security: Should the Transportation Security Administration be Included?
President George W. Bush has unveiled a plan to create a new Department of Homeland Security (H.R. 5005, introduced by request). The new department would be formed by consolidating all or part of 22 of the more than 100 different government organizations that are currently involved in antiterrorist activities. As part of this proposal, the recently created Transportation Security Administration (TSA) would be removed from the Department of Transportation (DOT) and transferred to the new entity. This report summarizes these and other arguments on both sides of this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2801/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2800/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2797/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2798/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2799/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2796/
Japan-U.S. Automobile and Parts Trade Dispute
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs267/
Potential Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6687/
Potential Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6688/
VXX Presidential Helicopter: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6172/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1669/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations -- Background and Issues for Congress
The Coast Guard is the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security. For FY2007, the Coast Guard is requesting a total of about $4.5 billion for missions defined in The Homeland Security Act of 2002 as the Coast Guard's homeland security missions. This equates to about 54% of the Coast Guard's total requested FY2007 budget. The Coast Guard's homeland security operations pose several potential issues for Congress, including adequacy of Coast Guard resources for performing both homeland security and non-homeland security missions, and Coast Guard coordination with other agencies involved in maritime homeland security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10269/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6952/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8466/
Drunk Driving and Raising the Drinking Age
This brief report is prepared in response to numerous requests for information on the related issues of drunk driving and raising the drinking age. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8712/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8036/
Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Report discussing the United States Navy's plan to develop and design a class of 12 next-generation ballistic missile submarines, or SSBN(X)s, as replacements for the 14 Ohio class SSBNs currently in operation. The report explores the affordability of the project and its potential impact on other Navy shipbuilding programs, alternatives to the program, and which shipyard or shipyards will build the proposed ships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227661/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Report containing the information regarding the Navy's Ohio replacement program, including its budget and Congressional issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227662/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's plan to develop and design a class of 12 next-generation ballistic missile submarines, or SSBN(X)s, as replacements for the 14 Ohio class SSBNs currently in operation. The report explores certain related issues for Congress, including the affordability of the project and its potential impact on other Navy shipbuilding programs, alternatives to the program, and which shipyard or shipyards will build the proposed ships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227663/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9628/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9629/
China's Impact on the U.S. Automotive Industry
This report discusses China’s impact on the U.S. Automotive Industry. Congress has been concerned with broad policies giving Chinese exporters unfair trade advantages. The Senate approved a bill, added as an amendment to other legislation that would place a high tariff on Chinese imports unless China revalues its pegged exchange rate (S. 295). Further action has been postponed on this measure. Legislation to allow U.S. producers to bring countervailing duty cases against Chinese firms subsidized by their government has been approved in the House (H.R. 3283), and a new law has tightened rules against trade in counterfeited goods (P.L. 109-181). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9141/
Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9526/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9630/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9872/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9871/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4628/
The Capitol Visitor Center: An Overview
This report presents the cost of the center, the most extensive addition to the Capitol since the Civil War, and the largest in the structure’s more than 200-year history, is now estimated to be at least $555 million. The project is being financed with appropriated funds, and a total of $65 million from private donations and revenue generated by the sale of commemorative coins. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9322/
Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9298/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9661/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9668/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9666/
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative
Fuel ethanol consumption has grown significantly in the past several years. Most of the U.S. market is supplied by domestic refiners producing ethanol from American corn. However, imports do play a role, albeit small, in the U.S. market. One reason for the relatively small role is a 54-cent-per-gallon tariff on imported ethanol. This tariff offsets an economic incentive of 51 cents per gallon for the use of ethanol in gasoline. However, to promote development and stability in the Caribbean region and Central America, the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) allows the imports of most products, including ethanol, duty-free. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9112/
Terminal Operators and Their Role in U.S. Port and Maritime Security
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9273/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9413/
Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9355/
Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9354/
Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9353/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4631/
Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4630/
The European Community - Japan Automobile Agreement
The European Community (EC) and Japan reached an agreement on trade in automobiles in July 1991. The agreement restricts exports of automobiles from Japan to the EC to 1.23 million cars per year until the end of 1999. The Commission of the European Communities estimates that Japanese transplant production in the EC will amount to 1.2 million cars per year in 1999. The Japanese appear to concur with this estimate but do not agree that it constitutes a cap on transplant investment or production. Whether the agreement covers the export of U.S.-built Japanese transplants to the EC is unclear. If the agreement covers, or has the effect of discouraging, such exports, it would be a cause for concern for U.S. policymakers. U.S. trade officials have reportedly discussed the issue with Japanese counterparts. It is unknown whether U.S. concerns have been addressed to European Community (EC) officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs40/