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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Dallas Love Field: The Wright and Shelby Amendments
The history of the Wright Amendment dates back to the 1960s when the now defunct Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) proposed the creation of a single regional airport in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area. This report discusses legislation affecting the Wright/Shelby restrictions that have been introduced in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821650/
Deficient Bridge Count Drops Again
This report briefly discusses overall decline in the number of deficient bridges in 2014 and the long-term downward trend, particularly among bridges posing structural safety concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503610/
Department of Homeland Security: Should the Transportation Security Administration be Included?
President George W. Bush has unveiled a plan to create a new Department of Homeland Security (H.R. 5005, introduced by request). The new department would be formed by consolidating all or part of 22 of the more than 100 different government organizations that are currently involved in antiterrorist activities. As part of this proposal, the recently created Transportation Security Administration (TSA) would be removed from the Department of Transportation (DOT) and transferred to the new entity. This report summarizes these and other arguments on both sides of this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2801/
The Department of Housing and Urban Development: FY2008 Appropriations
This report tracks the FY2008 congressional appropriations process and provides a detailed discussion of the funding and issues related to the majority of accounts in HUD’s budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821562/
The Department of Housing and Urban Development: FY2008 Appropriations
This report, tracks congressional appropriations for HUD and provides a detailed discussion of the funding and issues related to the majority of accounts in the Department’s budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822418/
The Department of Housing and Urban Development: FY2009 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700575/
Deregulation of Transportation
Transportation has been substantially deregulated over the last 5 years and there is talk of enacting legislation during the 98th Congress to further deregulate transportation or to restore some of the regulation that recent legislation has removed. This mini brief gives an overview of the deregulation already enacted into law, and some of the ideas being considered for further legislation. The brief also refers to some sources for further reading. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9035/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, recommended that Congress and the Transportation Security Administration give priority attention to screening airline passengers for explosives. The key issue for Congress is balancing the costs of mandating passenger explosives trace detection against other aviation security needs. Passenger explosives screening technologies have been under development for several years and are now being deployed in selected airports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8938/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
This report discusses options for airline passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and policy issues related to the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458). The legislation directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824782/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. It also requires that passengers who are selected for additional screening be screened for explosives, as an interim measure until all passengers can be screened for explosives. Congressional interest in this topic continues in the 109th Congress. This report discusses the current state of passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and related policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821060/
The Development of High Speed Rail in the United States: Issues and Recent Events
This report looks at the different ways to construct a high speed rail (HSR) in the U.S., including estimates of construction costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272031/
The Development of High Speed Rail in the United States: Issues and Recent Events
This report looks at the different ways to construct a high speed rail (HSR) in the U.S., including estimates of construction costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93945/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1669/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1670/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Overview of New Emissions Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1070/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense leasing foreign-built ships, the opponents of this practice, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503490/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense leasing foreign-built ships, the opponents of this practice, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627101/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years -- a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question. This report briefly discusses this issue, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29745/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense leasing foreign-built ships, the opponents of this practice, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103241/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
This report briefly discusses the Department of Defense leasing foreign-built ships, the opponents of this practice, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689114/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10675/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10676/
DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress
The Department of Defense (DOD) in recent years has leased some foreign-built cargo ships for total periods, including options and renewals, of almost 10 years - a length of time that some observers argue effectively circumvents a legal requirement that U.S. military ships be built in U.S. shipyards. These observers, particularly the American Shipbuilding Association (ASA), have proposed reducing the current five-year legal limit on ship leases to two years for foreign-built ships. DOD has opposed the idea, arguing that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10674/
DOT's Federal Pipeline Safety Program: Background and Key Issues for Congress
This report reviews the history of federal programs for pipeline safety, significant safety issues, and recent developments focusing on key issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795391/
DOT's Federal Pipeline Safety Program: Background and Key Issues for Congress
This report reviews the history of federal programs for pipeline safety, significant safety issues, and recent developments focusing on key issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855890/
DRIVE Act Would Increase Highway Funding Faster than Projected Inflation
This report briefly discusses the Developing a Reliable and Innovative Vision for the Economy Act (DRIVE Act; S. 1647). The DRIVE Act would authorize $278 billion for a six-year federal highway program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700515/
Drunk Driving and Raising the Drinking Age
This brief report is prepared in response to numerous requests for information on the related issues of drunk driving and raising the drinking age. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8712/
Drunk Driving and the National Driver Register
At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9058/
Drunk Driving: Should Each State Be Required to Enact a 0.08 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Law?
At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs622/
Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions about the risk from earthquakes to highway systems, including bridges, tunnels, pavements, and other highway components. Particular attention is given to highway bridges, which often are the most vulnerable highway structures. The report also discusses federal and nonfederal actions to reduce seismic risk to the U.S. highway system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463397/
Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions about the risk from earthquakes to highway systems, including bridges, tunnels, pavements, and other highway components. Particular attention is given to highway bridges, which often are the most vulnerable highway structures. The report also discusses federal and nonfederal actions to reduce seismic risk to the U.S. highway system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99050/
Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses a number of frequently asked questions about earthquake risk and highway system components, especially bridges. Earthquakes and related events, such as soil liquefaction, landslides, tsunamis, flooding, and fires, pose risks to highway infrastructure. Concerns about the U.S. highway system's seismic vulnerability stem from interest in protecting public safety, facilitating response and recovery efforts, and minimizing economic loss and social disruption. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855894/
Emergency Relief for Disaster Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in 2013). It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and then addresses eligibility issues and program operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276855/
Emergency Relief for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in Washington State in 2013). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795412/
Emergency Relief for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in Washington State in 2013). It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance, and then addresses eligibility issues and program operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855924/
Emergency Relief Program: Federal-Aid Highway Assistance for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges
Report that looks at the eligibility of major highways and bridges recently damaged by Hurricanes Sandy and Irene to receive Emergency Relief Program assistance from the Federal Highway Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227819/
Ensuring That Traffic Signs Are Visible at Night: Federal Regulations
This report provides background for the nighttime visibility maintenance standard and addresses some of the issues that have been raised about this standard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462560/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2389/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2390/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2391/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
This report describes the environmental documents required for highway projects, discusses the average amount of time to complete this documentation, summarizes the environmental streamlining provisions under TEA-21, and examines administrative and legislative actions taken to implement these requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4139/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
This report describes the environmental documents required for highway projects, discusses the average amount of time to complete this documentation, summarizes the environmental streamlining provisions under TEA-21, and examines administrative and legislative actions taken to implement these requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4140/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4141/
EPA's Proposed Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues
This report covers two proposed permit drafts by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding Vessel General Permits (VGPs): one for large vessels to replace the 2008 VGP (draft VGP), and one for smaller vessels that currently are covered by a congressionally-enacted temporary moratorium (draft sVGP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96715/
EPA's Tier 2 Proposal for Stricter Vehicle Emission Standards: A Fact Sheet
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established "Tier 1" standards to limit tailpipe emissions from new motor vehicles, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to determine if more stringent requirements are needed to attain or maintain National Ambient Air Quality Standards. EPA also must assess the availability and cost-effectiveness of technologies necessary to control emissions. In a report submitted to Congress in August 1998, EPA concluded that tougher standards are necessary and that essential technologies are available and cost-effective digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs850/
EPA's Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues
This report covers two proposed permit drafts by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding Vessel General Permits (VGPs): one for large vessels to replace the 2008 VGP (draft VGP), and one for smaller vessels that currently are covered by a congressionally-enacted temporary moratorium (draft sVGP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503309/
Essential Air Service (EAS)
This report discusses Congress' establishment of the Essential Air Service (EAS), a program to ensure that small communities that were served by certificated air carriers before the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 would continue to receive scheduled passenger service, with subsidies if necessary. Deregulation gave airlines almost total freedom to determine which domestic markets to serve and what airfares to charge, which raised the concern that communities with relatively low passenger levels would lose service as carriers shifted their operations to serve larger and often more profitable markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770631/
Essential Air Service (EAS): Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides an overview of the Essential Air Service (EAS) program and discusses the changes introduced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reauthorization bill and the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282327/
Essential Air Service (EAS): Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides an overview of the Essential Air Service (EAS) program and the legislative issues surrounding it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122207/
Essential Air Service: Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides an overview of the Essential Air Service (EAS) program and the legislative issues surrounding it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103139/