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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Appalachian Development Highway Program (ADHP): An Overview

Appalachian Development Highway Program (ADHP): An Overview

Date: December 7, 1998
Creator: Kirk, Robert S
Description: This report discusses the Appalachian Development Highway Program (ADHP). After a brief description of the ADHP system, the report describes the ADHP's operation, organization, spending history and status. It then describes changes in its funding mechanism resultant from TEA 21 and issues of interest to Congress related to the ADHP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues

Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues

Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: This report provides background information on federal emission standards for motor vehicles under the Clean Air Act and stricter standards originally developed to address the severity of air quality problems in California, explains the low emission standards and flexible compliance mechanisms to which states and manufacturers have voluntarily agreed under the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program, discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) estimates of the program's air quality benefits and costs, and examines regulatory issues related to its implementation including sulfur levels in gasoline and the relative stringency of emission standards for light trucks.
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The Passenger Service Act, Domestic Ocean Passenger Services, and the 106th Congress

The Passenger Service Act, Domestic Ocean Passenger Services, and the 106th Congress

Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak and Energy Conservation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Amtrak and Energy Conservation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Date: January 19, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: A rationale for federal financial support to Amtrak has been that rail service conserves energy, compared to other forms of intercity passenger transportation. The numbers discussed in this report suggest that the rationale might not be valid with regard to autos and buses. The report discusses some public policy implications that could follow from that conclusion.
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The Harbor Maintenance Tax and the 106th Congress

The Harbor Maintenance Tax and the 106th Congress

Date: January 19, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997 and Related Developments

The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997 and Related Developments

Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, enacted December 2, 1997, authorized appropriations to Amtrak through FY2002. This CRS report summarizes the provisions of the Act and discusses related developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation: Direct Federal Spending, 1918-1998

Aviation: Direct Federal Spending, 1918-1998

Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Fischer, John W & Kirk, Robert S
Description: The federal government has provided large financial resources in support of commercial aviation since 1918. This report details the amounts and types of federal spending that have occurred over this 80 year period. The report also discusses some of the issues that have shaped federal policy toward aviation and identifies some of the issues likely to affect federal spending in the future.
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The Surface Transportation Board (STB) Reauthorization and the 106th Congress

The Surface Transportation Board (STB) Reauthorization and the 106th Congress

Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Amtrak: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Date: March 2, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: This report discusses the financial troubles of Amtrak, its request for federal financial operating assistance, the Amtrack Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, Amtrak's Strategic Business Plan for FY1999-2002, Amtrak's operating losses, and other rail passenger services that might emerge in the absence of Amtrak, should the company fail.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Y2K Challenges and Transportation: Risks and Solutions

Y2K Challenges and Transportation: Risks and Solutions

Date: April 30, 1999
Creator: Rothberg, Paul F & Moore, J. Glen
Description: Many companies or governmental entities provide or use transportation systems that are heavily dependent on computers, software, and other technologies that do not have Y2K problems, e.g., they are Y2K compliant or ready. Some transportation systems, however, still use technologies with Y2K problems, which if left uncorrected, could pose safety risks or efficiency concerns on or after January 1, 2000. The extent and nature of those impacts are expected to vary among the modes of transportation and among various providers or users. In addition, Y2K-related problems occurring in the communications and energy industries could reduce the safety and efficiency of some transportation systems in early January 2000. Operations at some foreign ports and international air traffic control systems with Y2K problems also could adversely affect shipments and flights into and out of the United States. The total amount that has been spent to assess and fix Y2K problems affecting transportation is not known, but estimates suggest that at least $1 billion of private sector, transit authority, and federal funds have been or will soon be allocated for that purpose.
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EPA's Tier 2 Proposal for Stricter Vehicle Emission Standards: A Fact Sheet

EPA's Tier 2 Proposal for Stricter Vehicle Emission Standards: A Fact Sheet

Date: June 24, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established "Tier 1" standards to limit tailpipe emissions from new motor vehicles, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to determine if more stringent requirements are needed to attain or maintain National Ambient Air Quality Standards. EPA also must assess the availability and cost-effectiveness of technologies necessary to control emissions. In a report submitted to Congress in August 1998, EPA concluded that tougher standards are necessary and that essential technologies are available and cost-effective
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards

Air Quality and Motor Vehicles: An Analysis of Current and Proposed Emission Standards

Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The extent to which emissions from motor vehicles and the amount of sulfur in commercial gasoline should be regulated has become a controversial issue. The EPA is proposing national limits on gasoline sulfur levels which would become effective in 2004. This report provides background information on the regulation of vehicle emissions in the United States, analyzes key elements of the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Tier 2 proposal, summarizes major views on the proposal that have been expressed by the automobile industry, the oil refining industry, and some environmental organizations, and discusses relevant legislative activity in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2000: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2000: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies

Date: February 4, 2000
Creator: Thompson, Duane A & Kirk, Robert S
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Policies

Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Policies

Date: February 14, 2000
Creator: Lipford, William A & Harrison, Glennon J
Description: This report discusses the Bicycle and Pedestrian Legislation, Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act Of 1991 (ISTEA), Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century,and Funding under ISTEA and TEA21.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
C-17 Cargo Aircraft Program

C-17 Cargo Aircraft Program

Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The C-17 Globemaster III is a long-range cargo/transport aircraft operated by the U.S. Air Force since 1993. Congress approved development of the aircraft in the late 1970s, when it was recognized that the Air Force did not have enough airlift capability. In 1981, the McDonnell Douglas C-17 emerged as winner of a competition with Boeing and Lockheed to develop a next-generation aircraft to replace C-130s and C-141s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: March 27, 2000
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an introduction to the research, development, and commercialization of alternative vehicle technologies, specifically electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. It provides a description of the technology, and discusses issues such as cost, maintenance and fueling infrastructure, and performance for each type of vehicle. The report also discusses current congressional action on issues affecting these vehicles, as well as actions by the Administration and state and local governments. It will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Airport Improvement Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 106th Congress

Airport Improvement Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 106th Congress

Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Kirk, Robert S
Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program (AIP), which provides federal grants to airports for capital development. This report also discusses the Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, also referred to as AIR21, which includes provisions for increases in AIP spending, among other things. Primarily, this report discusses the legislative processes surrounding the enaction of these laws and the various appropriations the laws authorize.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aircraft Hushkits: Noise and International Trade

Aircraft Hushkits: Noise and International Trade

Date: May 8, 2000
Creator: Fischer, John W
Description: This report discusses aircraft noise regulations as they relate to hushkits, which is a combination of strategies designed to reduce aircraft noise. These strategies can include new technologies, redesigned engine enclosures, replacement engine components, entirely new engines, or a combination of any of the above. This report dicusses the new EU regulation limiting hushkitted commercial jet aircraft in the EU, the United States' response to this regulation, and the effect this could have on international air travel relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies

Date: August 11, 2000
Creator: Kirk, Robert S
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation Delays

Aviation Delays

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: Flight delays and cancellation in the U.S. air transportation system rose to record levels in 2000. The problem costs the airlines an estimated $3 billion annually and causes great inconvenience for shippers and passengers. Billions of federal dollars are being spent to modernize the air traffic control (ATC) system, purchase new equipment and expand airport capacity. But the airlines express little confidence that these efforts will provide near-term relief or be enough in the long-term to accommodate the forecasted growth in air traffic ­ up from about 670 million passengers this year to 1.0 billion forecast by 2010 and 1.5 billion by 2025.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Overview of New Emissions Regulations

Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Overview of New Emissions Regulations

Date: October 5, 2000
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Airport and Airway Trust Fund Issues in the 106th Congress

Airport and Airway Trust Fund Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: November 2, 2000
Creator: Fischer, John W
Description: This report briefly discusses the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR21 or FAIR21), which helps ensure that all aviation trust fund receipts (including interest) are spent for aviation purposes on an annual basis.
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Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety - Federal Program and Legislative Issues

Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety - Federal Program and Legislative Issues

Date: December 28, 2000
Creator: Rothberg, Paul F & Hassan, Hussein D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations

Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D; McCarthy, James E; Fischer, John W; Segarra, Alejandro E & Kumins, Lawrence C
Description: This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department