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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Automobile Domestic Content Requirements

Automobile Domestic Content Requirements

Date: May 18, 1982
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: In response to the lowest drop of American produced automobile sales in two decades and other related conditions, legislation has been introduced that would impose domestic (local) content ratios for automotive vehicles. These would require that cars and trucks sold in the United States in large quantities contain a certain percentage of American parts and labor.
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Automobiles Imported from Japan

Automobiles Imported from Japan

Date: March 12, 1980
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: In recent years, U.S. automotive imports from Japan have seen an increasing at an unusually rapid pace. Congress is considering measures that alleviate the situation and in June 1980 concurrently resolved to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry in world automobile and truck markets. As a result of the restraint agreement, automobile imports from Japan dropped from 1.99 million units in 1980 to 1.91 million units in 1981 (calendar year).
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Aviation Congestion: Proposed Non-Air Traffic Control Remedies

Aviation Congestion: Proposed Non-Air Traffic Control Remedies

Date: September 5, 2001
Creator: Fischer, John W
Description: The debate amongst airlines, airports, and government as to who should be blamed for the record flight delays is long-standing. A concomitant debate continues to occur as to solutions to this problem. The two apparent points of agreement are that ultimately there is no single cause of the delays and there is no single solution to the problem. Congress and the Bush Administration are examining a number of non-air traffic control strategies that might be useful in reducing delay both in the short and long term. Most of these efforts focus on expanding airport capacity or using existing capacity better. These include: new runway construction; environmental streamlining to speed up construction; allocation of airport space by use of economic incentives, i.e. peak period pricing; or administrative means, i.e. antitrust immunity to allow airline schedule coordination. All of the potential remedies engender some element of controversy, but the level of controversy varies significantly by suggested remedy. This report provides a brief overview and analysis of remedies currently under consideration by Congress and the Administration.
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Aviation Delays

Aviation Delays

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: Flight delays and cancellation in the U.S. air transportation system rose to record levels in 2000. The problem costs the airlines an estimated $3 billion annually and causes great inconvenience for shippers and passengers. Billions of federal dollars are being spent to modernize the air traffic control (ATC) system, purchase new equipment and expand airport capacity. But the airlines express little confidence that these efforts will provide near-term relief or be enough in the long-term to accommodate the forecasted growth in air traffic ­ up from about 670 million passengers this year to 1.0 billion forecast by 2010 and 1.5 billion by 2025.
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Aviation: Direct Federal Spending, 1918-1998

Aviation: Direct Federal Spending, 1918-1998

Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Fischer, John W & Kirk, Robert S
Description: The federal government has provided large financial resources in support of commercial aviation since 1918. This report details the amounts and types of federal spending that have occurred over this 80 year period. The report also discusses some of the issues that have shaped federal policy toward aviation and identifies some of the issues likely to affect federal spending in the future.
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Aviation Safety: FAA Near Midair Collision Reports

Aviation Safety: FAA Near Midair Collision Reports

Date: August 13, 1987
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: This report discusses the minimum separation distance in a near midair collision report which the event must meet in order to be classified a "near miss." If a pilot of flight crew member subjectively believes that the near miss occurred, the report of that event is accepted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and counts as a near miss in the FAA data base regardless of the actual separation distance. While no proximity limits are placed on near midair collision reports, the agency does attempt to categorize each reported encounter by degree of hazard represented from an aviation safety perspective.
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Aviation Security: Issues Before Congress Since September 11, 2001

Aviation Security: Issues Before Congress Since September 11, 2001

Date: February 6, 2004
Creator: Elias, Bartholomew
Description: The events of September 11, 2001 heightened concerns regarding aviation security in the United States. The ensuing debate in Congress focused on the degree of federal involvement needed to improve aviation security and restore public confidence in air travel. The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA, P.L. 107-71, 115 Stat. 597) established the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and contained provisions establishing a federal screener workforce and requiring screening of checked baggage using explosive detection systems. In November 2004, airports will be eligible to opt out of the federal security screening program and a provision of P.L. 107-296 preserving TSA in its present form will expire allowing DHS to restructure the TSA if it so chooses, although no such plan has been revealed to date. During the second session of the 108th Congress, oversight of TSA’s plans for implementing the security screening opt-out program will likely be of considerable interest as will any plans to restructure the TSA.
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Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Elias, Bartholomew
Description: In response to the 9/11 Commission’s aviation security-related recommendations, two bills — H.R. 5121 and H.R. 10 — introduced in the House contain several provisions to enhance aviation security. Additionally, floor amendments to S. 2845, the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004, contain numerous aviation security provisions, many of which address 9/11 Commission recommendations related to aviation safety. S. 2845 was passed (96-2) by the Senate on October 6, 2004. The House passed H.R. 10 on October 8 by a vote of 282-134. A conference has been requested to resolve numerous differences between H.R. 10 and S. 2845.
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Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

Date: August 24, 2004
Creator: Elias, Bartholomew
Description: The 9/11 Commission issued several recommendations designed to strengthen aviation security by: enhancing passenger pre-screening; improving measures to detect explosives on passengers; addressing human factors issues at screening checkpoints; expediting deployment of in-line baggage screening systems; intensifying efforts to identify, track, and screen potentially dangerous cargo; and deploying hardened cargo containers on passenger aircraft. In addition to these specific recommendations, an overarching recommendation for transportation security policy asserts that priorities should be set based on risk, and the most practical and cost effective deterrents should be implemented assigning appropriate roles and missions to federal, state, and local authorities, as well as private stakeholders.
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Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission

Date: March 30, 2005
Creator: Elias, Bartholomew
Description: In response to the 9/11 Commission’s aviation security-related recommendations, two bills — H.R. 5121 and H.R. 10 — introduced in the House contain several provisions to enhance aviation security. Additionally, floor amendments to S. 2845, the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004, contain numerous aviation security provisions, many of which address 9/11 Commission recommendations related to aviation safety. S. 2845 was passed (96-2) by the Senate on October 6, 2004. The House passed H.R. 10 on October 8 by a vote of 282-134. A conference has been requested to resolve numerous differences between H.R. 10 and S. 2845.
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