You limited your search to:

 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data
This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. U.S. trade with the People's Republic of China (China) is becoming increasingly contentious as the U.S. bilateral trade deficit rises. Debate over this trade deficit is hampered because of disagreement between the two countries on how large the deficit actually is. According to official U.S. figures, China has surpassed Canada as the largest supplier of U.S. imports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503417/
Section 301 of The Trade Act of 1974, As Amended: Its Operation and Issues Involving its Use by the United States
This report describes the Section 301 process (including the related Special 301 and Super 301 processes) and examines questions that arise from its use. Section 301 is one of the principal means by whichthe United States attempts to combat unfair trading practices and enforce U.S. rights under trade agreements digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821101/
The U.S. Trade Deficit: Role of Foreign Governments
The nation’s trade deficit is equal to the imbalance between national investment and national saving. This report discusses several trends in U.S. trade balance and what they mean for the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822462/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462334/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
"This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) used to determine the country of origin of merchandise entering the U.S. market, in three parts. First, [it] describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, [the report] discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, [the report] concludes with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process" (Summary). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462972/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, it describes the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, it discusses some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. It concludes with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700903/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
In the last few years, the United States has considered bilateral and regional free trade areas (FTAs) with a number of trading partners. Such arrangements are not new in U.S. trade policy. The United States has had a free trade arrangement with Israel since 1985 and with Canada since1989. The latter was suspended when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that included the United States, Canada, and Mexico, went into effect in January 1994. This report monitors pending and possible proposals for U.S. FTAs, relevant legislation and other congressional interest in U.S. FTAs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9334/
World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda
This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. It includes background on Doha and the significance of the negotiations, as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770626/
Trade Negotiations During the 110th Congress
This report discusses the trade negotiations during Bush Administration, which has made bilateral and regional free-trade agreements (FTAs) an important element of U.S. trade policy, a strategy known as “competitive liberalization.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821625/
U.S. - European Union Disputes in the World Trade Organization
This report discusses disputes in the World Trade Organization (WTO) between the United States and the European Union (EU). The report begins with an overview of the issues to be addressed, and continues with a brief description of the WTO dispute settlement process, a summary of U.S.-EU dispute settlement history, and a review of issues arising from cases of longstanding non-compliance. The report concludes with a discussion of continuing concerns and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821439/
U.S.-Latin American Trade: Recent Trends
Since congressional passage of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) in August 2002 (P.L. 107-210), the U.S.-Chile free trade agreement (FTA) has been implemented and negotiations were concluded on the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). Implementing legislation may be introduced in the first session of the 109th Congress. Other important U.S.-Latin America trade initiatives include FTA negotiations with three Andean countries and Panama, and the ongoing but slowed talks on the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Congress defined trade negotiation objectives in TPA and trade agreements are enacted only after Congress passes implementing legislation. This report supports the congressional role in trade policy by providing an analytical overview of U.S.-Latin American trade data and trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822401/
The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement
This report addresses the proposed U.S.-Malaysia free trade agreement (FTA). It provides a brief overview of the Malaysian economy, a review of U.S. interests in the proposed agreement, an examination of possible issues likely to arise during the negotiations, a comparison of tariff rates between the two countries, legislative procedures, and an appendix with a brief chronology and trade data — including U.S. exports and imports to Malaysia by sector and exports to Malaysia by state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822422/
China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy
This report starts out by describing China's policy of pegging its currency to the U.S. dollar at an exchange rate of roughly 8.28 yuan to the dollar. As a result, the exchange rate between the yuan and the dollar basically stayed the same. The report discusses most significant events concerning China's currency policy and its impact on U.S. trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93977/
Reauthorization of the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC): Opportunity to Reexamine the Congressionally Mandated Antitrust Exemption for Ocean Liner Carriers?
The focus of this report is on the commercial aspects of the U.S. liner trade. The report discusses the historical rationale for shipping conferences and legislative history of U.S. shipping law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795525/
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820859/
Potential Challenges to U.S. Farm Subsidies in the WTO: A Brief Overview
This report examines U.S. commodity subsidy programs, which have changing criteria due to the expiration of the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) so-called "Peace Clause." This change appears to have made U.S. export and domestic support programs more vulnerable to legal challenge under WTO rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824486/
U.S.- Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations
This report examines Thailand’s economy and trade orientation, the scope and significance of the U.S.-Thai commercial relationship, and the likely top issues in the negotiations. The report concludes with a short summary of the Congressional role and interest in the FTA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822479/
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
This report discusses trade issues in the 109th Congress. For over 50 years, U.S. trade officials have negotiated multilateral trade agreements to achieve lower trade barriers and rules to cover international trade. During the 108th Congress, U.S. officials negotiated and Congress approved four bilateral free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Morocco, and Singapore. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824776/
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
This report discusses trade issues in the 109th Congress. For over 50 years, U.S. trade officials have negotiated multilateral trade agreements to achieve lower trade barriers and rules to cover international trade. During the 108th Congress, U.S. officials negotiated and Congress approved four bilateral free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Morocco, and Singapore. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855781/
The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate
This report discusses the Export Administration Act (EAA) in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462426/
What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data
The size of the U.S. bilateral trade deficit with China has been and continues to be an important issue in bilateral trade relations. Some Members of Congress view the deficit as a sign of unfair economic policies in China, and have introduced legislation seeking to redress the perceived competitive disadvantage China's policies have created for U.S. exporters. This paper examines the differences in the trade data from the two nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627243/
Brazil's WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview
This report provides a brief overview of Brazil's case against the U.S. cotton program, the evolution and current status of the case, and the potential role for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94210/
The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate
This report discusses the Export Administration Act in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under IEEPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689111/
Farm Support Programs and World Trade Commitments
Congress is now debating reauthorization of omnibus farm legislation, as most commodityprice support provisions expire in 2002. This report discusses this debate, specifically aspects relating to commitments that the U.S. has as a World Trade Organization (WTO) member. Because of the interrelationships between trade and domestic support policies, lawmakers are interested in what the Agreement on Agriculture stipulates with regard to domestic supports, and how not only the United States but also other countries are meeting their Agreement commitments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1379/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87383/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
In the last few years, the United States has considered bilateral and regional free trade areas (FTAs) with a number of trading partners. Such arrangements are not new in U.S. trade policy. The United States has had a free trade arrangement with Israel since 1985 and with Canada since1989. The latter was suspended when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that included the United States, Canada, and Mexico, went into effect in January 1994. This report monitors pending and possible proposals for U.S. FTAs, relevant legislation and other congressional interest in U.S. FTAs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9764/
U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) Proposal
This report provides an introduction to U.S. Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ). The report discusses the details of the Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) proposal, the potential winners and losers under the TAP proposal, economic studies on the TAP proposal, and policy analysis on the TAP proposal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795754/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
This report provides background on Free Trade Areas (FTAs) including: definitions of Free Trade Areas, why countries form FTAs, FTAs in the context of U.S. trade policy, Bush Administration policies and recent developments, the economic impact of FTAs, whether FTAs create trade or divert it, FTAs the the WTO, debate points related to FTAs, relevant legislation, and final conclusions and implications for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824507/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822606/
The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products
This report presents recent trends in U.S. fruit and vegetable trade, and highlights some of the factors contributing to these trends. This summary excludes trade data for tree nuts and processed tree nut products. Although not presented here, U.S. exports and imports of tree nuts and processed tree nut products (excluding peanuts) have shown continued increases, with a growing trade surplus of $1.8 billion in 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821410/
The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences, and Cures
This report examines the U.S. trade deficit, paying special attention to what causes the imbalance, why it may be a problem, and what can be done to correct it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463494/
Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade
This report discusses the different kinds of intellectual property rights (IPR); forms of IPR infringement; importance of IPR to the U.S. economy; estimated losses associated with IPR infringement; organizational structure of IPR protection in multilateral, regional, bilateral; U.S. government agencies involved with IPR and trade; and issues for Congress regarding IPR and international trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462355/
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy
This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503340/
China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues
This report summarizes China's economic issues and its currency manipulation, intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China more expensive than they would be under free market conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98117/
Agriculture in U.S. Free Trade Agreements: Trade with Current and Prospective Partners, Impact, and Issues
This report discusses the trade in agricultural products, which is one of the difficult issues negotiators face in concluding free trade agreements (FTAs). The report also deals with food safety and animal/plant health matters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96787/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689335/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
This report discusses the trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for Firms program, which provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies to remain competitive in the changing international economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700835/
U.S. Foreign Trade in Services: Definition, Patterns and Policy Challenges
This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. foreign trade in services. It includes an examination of definitions and examples of services to indicate their nature and scope; a review of the importance of services to the U.S. economy including U.S. foreign trade; and an analysis of the policy challenges that confront the United States, especially the challenge of negotiating a set of international rules on trade in services and the challenge of resolving disputes over trade in services with trading partners. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700867/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94211/
WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases
This report provides a summary of the status of U.S. compliance efforts in pending World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes that have resulted in adverse rulings against the United States. The report begins with an overview of WTO dispute settlement procedures, focusing on the compliance phase of the process, followed by a discussion of U.S. laws relating to WTO dispute proceedings. The report then lists pending WTO disputes in the compliance phase, with a brief discussion of major issues and the U.S. compliance history in each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98049/
U.S. Foreign Trade in Services: Definition, Patterns and Policy Challenges
This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. foreign trade in services. It includes an examination of definitions and examples of services to indicate their nature and scope; a review of the importance of services to the U.S. economy including U.S. foreign trade; and an analysis of the policy challenges that confront the United States, especially the challenge of negotiating a set of international rules on trade in services and the challenge of resolving disputes over trade in services with trading partners. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700761/
Is the U.S. Current Account Deficit Sustainable?
This report reviews studies on the current account (CA) deficit’s sustainability. The studies suggest that a dollar depreciation of 10% to 56% could eventually be required to restore sustainability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8239/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2006, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824803/
Diamonds and Conflict: Background, Policy, and Legislation
This report discusses issues surrounding "conflict diamonds" -- i.e., diamonds that have been mined and sold to support armed conflict -- as well as resulting U.S. policy responses. Policy makers' attention has also increasingly focused on the possible role that diamonds may play in the financing of terrorist operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824752/
World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda
This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. It includes background on Doha and the significance of the negotiations, as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821391/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
To provide an idea of the nature and scope of changes in trade competitiveness between the CBERA countries and Mexico that have resulted from the implementation of the NAFTA, this report describes the relevant preferential or special tariff treatments, as applicable. The aspects of trade policy that apply generally to all (or most) U.S. trading partners (e.g., most-favored-nation/normal-trade-relations status, or production-sharing provisions) are not included in any detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821072/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847785/
U.S.-Canada Wheat Trade Dispute
This report provides background for understanding the U.S. and Canadian wheat trade dispute, as well as timelines, rulings, and other details for the International Trade Commission (ITC) and World Trade Organization (WTO) cases brought by the United States against Canadian wheat trading practices and the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822425/
Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate
This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program, which provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDC's). A brief comparison of GSP programs worldwide, especially as they compare to the U.S. system, is also presented. Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders is presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462274/
U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts
This report provides an overview of the current status, trends, and forecasts for U.S. international trade. The purpose of this report is to provide current data and brief explanations for the various types of trade flows, particularly U.S. exports, along with a short discussion of particular trends and points of contention related to trade policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462746/
FIRST PREV 1 2 3 4 NEXT LAST