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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Trade Issues in the 109th Congress: Policy Challenges and Opportunities
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What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data
This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. U.S. trade with the People's Republic of China (China) is becoming increasingly contentious as the U.S. bilateral trade deficit rises. Debate over this trade deficit is hampered because of disagreement between the two countries on how large the deficit actually is. According to official U.S. figures, China has surpassed Canada as the largest supplier of U.S. imports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503417/
Trade Liberalization Challenges Post-CAFTA
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Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the WTO
This report discuses programs with in the World Trade Organization (WTO) regarding trade between members. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94208/
Section 301 of The Trade Act of 1974, As Amended: Its Operation and Issues Involving its Use by the United States
This report describes the Section 301 process (including the related Special 301 and Super 301 processes) and examines questions that arise from its use. Section 301 is one of the principal means by whichthe United States attempts to combat unfair trading practices and enforce U.S. rights under trade agreements digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821101/
The U.S. Trade Deficit: Role of Foreign Governments
The nation’s trade deficit is equal to the imbalance between national investment and national saving. This report discusses several trends in U.S. trade balance and what they mean for the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822462/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China's international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both People's Republic of China (PRC) sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highligh China's growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10464/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8763/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8344/
Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 109th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 109th Congress
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Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Proposals for Renewal and Reform
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Trade Legislation in the 106th Congress: An Overview
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Trade Legislation in the 106th Congress: An Overview
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China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6462/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3547/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6076/
Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress: An Overview
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Status of Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Status of Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Status of Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress
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U.S. Latin American Trade: Recent Trends
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Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Trade Negotiations in the 108th Congress
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Status of Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
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International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462334/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
"This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) used to determine the country of origin of merchandise entering the U.S. market, in three parts. First, [it] describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, [the report] discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, [the report] concludes with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process" (Summary). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462972/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai
On October 20-21, 2001, the Ninth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by China in Shanghai. The office theme for APEC 2001 was “Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation” with the sub-themes of: (1) sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, (2) advancing trade and investment, and (3) promoting sustained economic growth. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2015/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2002 Summit in Mexico
On October 26-27, 2002, the Tenth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by Mexico in Las Cabos, Mexico. The official theme for APEC 2002 is to expand the benefits of cooperation for economic growth and development and enable the APEC vision to be implemented. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3539/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2002 Summit in Mexico
On October 26-27, 2002, the Tenth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by Mexico in Las Cabos, Mexico. The official theme for APEC 2002 is to expand the benefits of cooperation for economic growth and development and enable the APEC vision to be implemented. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3541/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2003 Summit in Bangkok, Thailand
On October 20-21, 2003, the Eleventh APEC Leader’s Meeting (informal summit) was held in Bangkok, Thailand. The theme for APEC 2003 is “A World of Differences: Partnership for the Future” which is intended to bring together the best potential of all APEC economies to confront the challenges of the future, particularly in achieving the APEC goal of free and open trade and investment for developed APEC economies. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5577/
Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
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Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
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Agricultural Trade in the Free Trade Area of the Americas
Leaders of Western Hemisphere countries have agreed to negotiate a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement by 2005. FTAA’s objective is to promote economic growth and democracy by eliminating barriers to trade in all goods (including agricultural and food products) and services, and to facilitate investment. If diplomats reach agreement, free trade in the hemisphere could occur by 2020. Negotiations on FTAA’s agriculture component have become contentious. This report discusses the controversial aspects of FTAA, describes the advantages and disadvantages of FTAA, and discusses FTAA in relation to the existing North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8849/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea
The 111th Congress in coming months might take up free trade agreements (FTAs) signed by the Bush Administration with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration of these agreements. Accordingly, agriculture as covered in each pending trade agreement is examined in this report in the order that Congress likely will take up these agreements, based upon statements made to date by Obama Administration officials and Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26158/
Mercosur: Evolution and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
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Vietnam PNTR Status and WTO Accession: Issues and Implications for the United States
Report discussing the role of the United States regarding the status of trade relations with Vietnam after its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The report focuses on the issue of most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or normal trade relations (NTR) which conflicts with Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. There is an overview of U.S.-Vietnam economic relations the Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Vietnam's NTR status, the WTO accession process in relation to Vietnam's status, the significance of the issues for both Vietnam and the United States, as well as other political and economic issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9448/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, it describes the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, it discusses some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. It concludes with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700903/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
In the last few years, the United States has considered bilateral and regional free trade areas (FTAs) with a number of trading partners. Such arrangements are not new in U.S. trade policy. The United States has had a free trade arrangement with Israel since 1985 and with Canada since1989. The latter was suspended when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that included the United States, Canada, and Mexico, went into effect in January 1994. This report monitors pending and possible proposals for U.S. FTAs, relevant legislation and other congressional interest in U.S. FTAs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9334/
World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda
This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. It includes background on Doha and the significance of the negotiations, as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770626/
Trade Negotiations During the 110th Congress
This report discusses the trade negotiations during Bush Administration, which has made bilateral and regional free-trade agreements (FTAs) an important element of U.S. trade policy, a strategy known as “competitive liberalization.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821625/
U.S. - European Union Disputes in the World Trade Organization
This report discusses disputes in the World Trade Organization (WTO) between the United States and the European Union (EU). The report begins with an overview of the issues to be addressed, and continues with a brief description of the WTO dispute settlement process, a summary of U.S.-EU dispute settlement history, and a review of issues arising from cases of longstanding non-compliance. The report concludes with a discussion of continuing concerns and policy considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821439/
U.S.-Latin American Trade: Recent Trends
Since congressional passage of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) in August 2002 (P.L. 107-210), the U.S.-Chile free trade agreement (FTA) has been implemented and negotiations were concluded on the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). Implementing legislation may be introduced in the first session of the 109th Congress. Other important U.S.-Latin America trade initiatives include FTA negotiations with three Andean countries and Panama, and the ongoing but slowed talks on the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Congress defined trade negotiation objectives in TPA and trade agreements are enacted only after Congress passes implementing legislation. This report supports the congressional role in trade policy by providing an analytical overview of U.S.-Latin American trade data and trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822401/
The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement
This report addresses the proposed U.S.-Malaysia free trade agreement (FTA). It provides a brief overview of the Malaysian economy, a review of U.S. interests in the proposed agreement, an examination of possible issues likely to arise during the negotiations, a comparison of tariff rates between the two countries, legislative procedures, and an appendix with a brief chronology and trade data — including U.S. exports to Malaysia by sector and exports to Malaysia by state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821443/
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