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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Job Loss: Causes and Policy Implications

Job Loss: Causes and Policy Implications

Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: Job loss is one of the most important macroeconomic problems facing policymakers, both in terms of its economic and social cost. This report discusses factors that cause job loss and the policy implications.
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: July 10, 2007
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
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U.S.-Taiwan Trade Relations

U.S.-Taiwan Trade Relations

Date: July 14, 2015
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report discusses the U.S. - Taiwan relations. U.S. trade data indicate that in 2014, Taiwan was the United States’ 10th largest merchandise trading partner (at $67.4 billion), 14th largest export market ($26.8 billion), and 12th largest source of imports ($40.6 billion).
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Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Date: September 12, 2005
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
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Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S Goals

Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
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AGOA III: Amendment to the African Growth and Opportunity Act

AGOA III: Amendment to the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Langton, Danielle
Description: This report discusses the African Growth and Opportunity Act, which seeks to spur economic development and help integrate Africa into the world trading system by granting trade preferences and other benefits to Sub-Saharan African countries that meet certain criteria relating to market reform and human rights.
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Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: March 11, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report discusses the impact of taxes on international trade and investment has been debated for decades. Most recently, a variety of bills addressing international taxation have been introduced in the 110th Congress—some would cut taxes for U.S. firms overseas, while others would increase taxes on foreign investment. The debate over taxes and foreign outsourcing has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment; questions arise over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. The debate over international taxation has again become prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current system affects outsourcing, and whether policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable.
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Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Description: The impact of taxes on international trade and foreign investment has had a place in tax policy debates for decades, although its prominence has waxed and waned. The debate has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment ; questions arise during such times over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. In recent months, the debate over international taxation again became prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current tax system likely affects outsourcing, and whether alternative tax policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable. This report applies economic analysis to both questions.
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China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: March 15, 2005
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges.
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World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

Date: July 10, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. It includes background on Doha and the significance of the negotiations, as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress.
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U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
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United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

Date: September 14, 2011
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses trade and economic relationship between the United States and Canada, which conduct the world’s largest bilateral trade relationship.
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The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products

The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products

Date: April 30, 2008
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report presents recent trends in U.S. fruit and vegetable trade, and highlights some of the factors contributing to these trends. This summary excludes trade data for tree nuts and processed tree nut products. Although not presented here, U.S. exports and imports of tree nuts and processed tree nut products (excluding peanuts) have shown continued increases, with a growing trade surplus of $1.8 billion in 2006.
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North Korea: Economic Sanctions

North Korea: Economic Sanctions

Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Description: U.S. economic sanctions are imposed against North Korea for five primary reasons: (1) North Korea is seen as posing a threat to U.S. national security; (2) North Korea is designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor or supporter of international terrorism; (3) North Korea is a Marxist-Leninist state, with a Communist government; (4) North Korea has been found by the State Department to have engaged in proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) North Korea has been found by the President to have detonated a nuclear explosive device. This paper explains the U.S. economic sanctions currently in place, and summarizes recent events as they relate to the potential application of additional restrictions.
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Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Date: January 12, 2005
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N.
Description: To provide an idea of the nature and scope of changes in trade competitiveness between the CBERA countries and Mexico that have resulted from the implementation of the NAFTA, this report describes the relevant preferential or special tariff treatments, as applicable. The aspects of trade policy that apply generally to all (or most) U.S. trading partners (e.g., most-favored-nation/normal-trade-relations status, or production-sharing provisions) are not included in any detail.
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WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture

WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture

Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations began in November 2001. From an agricultural viewpoint, the goal of the negotiations was to make progress simultaneously across the three pillars of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agricultural Agreement—domestic support, market access, and export competition—by building on the specific terms and conditions established during the previous Uruguay Round of negotiations. This report reviews the current status of agricultural negotiations for domestic support, market access, and export subsidies, and their potential implications for U.S. agriculture.
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U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges

U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges

Date: May 20, 2005
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: This report examines the economic partnership between the United States and the European Union. Not only is the U.S.-EU trade and investment relationship the largest in the world, but it is also arguably the most important. Agreement between the two partners in the past has been critical to making the world trading system more open and efficient.
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The WTO, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Access to Medicines Controversy

The WTO, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Access to Medicines Controversy

Date: January 4, 2007
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses issues regarding a World Trade Organization (WTO) on the use of compulsory licenses by developing countries without manufacturing capacity to access life-sustaining medicines.
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The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

Date: November 9, 2012
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: This report discusses the proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) signed November 22, 2006, which has not yet been approved by Congress. It includes an overview of the proposed CFTA and U.S.-Colombia trade, background on Colombia, issues for Congress to consider, Colombia's plan to improve labor rights, and the actions that Colombia has already taken to improve violence, labor, and human rights within the country.
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Trade Negotiations During the 110th Congress

Trade Negotiations During the 110th Congress

Date: January 8, 2008
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the trade negotiations during Bush Administration, which has made bilateral and regional free-trade agreements (FTAs) an important element of U.S. trade policy, a strategy known as “competitive liberalization.”
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The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Automobile Rules of Origin

The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Automobile Rules of Origin

Date: June 15, 2011
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Platzer, Michaela D.
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the complex supply chains that now underlie automotive production. It then explains the procedures established in the KORUS FTA for determining whether an automotive product qualifies as being of South Korean or United States origin and compares those procedures to the rules established in the free trade agreement between South Korea and the European Union. Finally, it discusses whether the domestic content rules in the KORUS FTA could enable circumvention of the rules of origin by allowing automotive components produced in North Korea’s Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) to enter the United States duty-free in assembled motor vehicles, and thereby receive the benefits provided by the agreement.
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Russia and U.S. Foreign Assistance: 1992-1996

Russia and U.S. Foreign Assistance: 1992-1996

Date: March 20, 1996
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report provides historical background that may be useful to Congress as it considers funding levels, types of programs, and problems in implementation of U.S. assistance to other countries.
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United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

Date: September 2, 2010
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report examines the various aspects of the United States-Canada trade and economic partnership and presents several policy options for Congress.
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Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement

Morocco-U.S. Free Trade Agreement

Date: February 16, 2006
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: This report discusses the free trade agreement (FTA) between United States and Morocco. The United States and Morocco reached agreement on March 2, 2004 to create a free trade agreement.
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