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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority

Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority

Date: August 2, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: New “fast track,” or trade promotion, authority (TPA) cleared the 107th Congress for the President’s expected signature in August 2002. Such authority enables the Administration to submit negotiated foreign trade agreements to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests were among the export-oriented enterprises that supported TPA, arguing that foreign trading partners would not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacked it. However, some farm groups argued that fast track ultimately will lead to new agreements that have adverse effects on U.S. producers, at least of some commodities.
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Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Date: March 27, 2001
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: The 107th Congress is expected to consider new "fast track" (or, Presidential trade promotion) authority, which could enable the Administration to submit trade agreements negotiated with foreign countries to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-oriented enterprises that support fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track ultimately will lead to new agreements that deliver more benefits to foreign than to U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors.
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Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Date: December 3, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: Senate and House committees in October reported legislation for new fast track authority enabling the Administration to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries and to submit them to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-dependent enterprises that support new fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track provides them with inadequate opportunities for dealing with their issues, and that it ultimately will lead to new agreements that benefit foreign more than U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. Neither bill was taken to the floor in 1997 because of insufficient votes for passage in the House. However, the President is expected to seek approval in 1998.
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Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries.
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Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Date: February 14, 2011
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries.
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Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: The 111th Congress in coming months might take up free trade agreements (FTAs) signed by the Bush Administration with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration of these agreements. Accordingly, agriculture as covered in each pending trade agreement is examined in this report in the order that Congress likely will take up these agreements, based upon statements made to date by Obama Administration officials and Members of Congress.
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Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama

Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama

Date: October 6, 2011
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries.
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Agriculture in the U.S.-Dominican Republic Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA)

Agriculture in the U.S.-Dominican Republic Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA)

Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: On August 2, 2005, President Bush signed into law the bill to implement the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement, or DR-CAFTA (P.L. 109-53, H.R. 3045). In DR-CAFTA, the United States and six countries will completely phase out tariffs and quotas — the primary means of border protection — on all but four agricultural commodities traded between them in stages up to 20 years. The four exempted products are as follows: for the United States, sugar; for Costa Rica, fresh onions and fresh potatoes; and for the four other Central American countries, white corn. DR-CAFTA’s provisions, once fully implemented, are expected to result in trade gains, though small, for the U.S. agricultural sector. This report describes this agreement in detail, as well as the stances of both supporters and detractors.
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Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement

Date: October 6, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: At the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) Ninth Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 3-7, 2013, ministers adopted the so-called Bali Package — a series of decisions aimed at streamlining trade (referred to as trade facilitation), allowing developing countries more options for providing food security, boosting least-developed-country trade, and helping development more generally. This report focuses on aspects of the Bali Package that deal with and are specific to agriculture.
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Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement

Date: November 13, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: At the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) Ninth Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 3-7, 2013, ministers adopted the so-called Bali Package--a series of decisions aimed at streamlining trade (referred to as trade facilitation), allowing developing countries more options for providing food security, boosting least-developed-country trade, and helping development more generally. This report focuses on those aspects of the Bali Package that deal with and are specific to agriculture. It also includes a section (at the end of the report) that provides an update on the status of implementation of the various Bali Package provisions agreed to by the WTO.
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Agriculture in the WTO Doha Round: The Framework Agreement and Next Steps

Agriculture in the WTO Doha Round: The Framework Agreement and Next Steps

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: Member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) reached agreement on July 31, 2004 on a framework for negotiating agricultural trade liberalization in the multilateral trade round known as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). The framework, part of a work program for all negotiating issues in the DDA (nonagricultural market access, services, trade facilitation, etc.), sets the stage for negotiations, now underway, to determine specific targets or formulas (“modalities”) for curbing trade-distorting domestic support, reducing trade barriers and eliminating export subsidies. If agreed to, the agriculture modalities report would be on the agenda of the WTO’s Sixth Ministerial Conference in December 2005, and negotiations could be completed during 2006. In the meantime, the President has requested a two-year extension of trade promotion authority procedures (TPA, also known as fast-track) for considering legislation to implement trade agreements.
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Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Date: January 27, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy.
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Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Date: May 10, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: Most provisions of the current “farm bill,” the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA) of 2002 (P.L. 107-171), do not expire until 2007. However, hearings on a 2007 farm bill could begin in late 2005. At that time, Congress will begin to examine farm income and commodity price support proposals that might succeed the programs due to expire in 2007. A key question likely to be asked of virtually every new proposal is how it will affect U.S. commitments under the WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture (AA), which commits the United States to spend no more than $19.1 billion annually on domestic farm support programs most likely to distort trade. The AA spells out the rules for countries to determine whether their policies are potentially trade distorting, and to calculate the costs. This report describes the steps for making these determinations.
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Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support

Date: December 4, 2012
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: A potential major constraint affecting U.S. agricultural policy choices is the set of commitments made as part of membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its various agreements governing agriculture and trade, including dispute settlement. This report provides a brief overview of the WTO commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. A key question that policymakers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO?
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Agriculture in the WTO: Member Spending on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Member Spending on Domestic Support

Date: June 17, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: Under the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on Agriculture (AA), member countries agreed to general rules regarding disciplines on domestic and export subsidies, and concessions on market access. This report focuses solely on the commitments made by WTO member countries concerning government outlays in support of domestic agricultural production. The three sections of the report provide a brief overview of WTO domestic policy commitments; background information on WTO member requirements for reporting on domestic subsidy outlays; WTO member outlays made to support agricultural production; and U.S. agricultural support outlays compared against spending limits. In addition, the report briefly discusses the implications for U.S. agricultural policy of continued adherence to existing WTO commitments.
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Agriculture in the WTO: Policy Commitments Made Under the Agreement on Agriculture

Agriculture in the WTO: Policy Commitments Made Under the Agreement on Agriculture

Date: May 12, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides a review of the major agricultural policy commitments made by members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations completed in 1994, and the legal text that underlies those commitments. Most agricultural support commitments are embodied in the Agreement on Agriculture and it is the essential focus of this review. However, references are made to additional supporting legal texts that emerged as part of the Uruguay Round Agreement, as well as to related studies and references produced by the WTO, its member countries, and international organizations interested in trade and development.
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Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support

Date: September 18, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. The report discusses a key question that policy makers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO? The answer depends not only on cost, but also on the proposal's design and objectives, as described below.
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Agriculture in U.S. Free Trade Agreements: Trade with Current and Prospective Partners, Impact, and Issues

Agriculture in U.S. Free Trade Agreements: Trade with Current and Prospective Partners, Impact, and Issues

Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: This report discusses the trade in agricultural products, which is one of the difficult issues negotiators face in concluding free trade agreements (FTAs). The report also deals with food safety and animal/plant health matters.
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Agriculture in WTO Negotiations

Agriculture in WTO Negotiations

Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) fifth ministerial conference (held September 10-14, 2003 in Cancun, Mexico) ended without an agreement on a framework for continuing multilateral negotiations on agricultural trade liberalization. The inconclusive end of the Cancun ministerial places in doubt the ability of WTO member countries to complete the current round of negotiations by the scheduled January 1, 2005 deadline. This report discusses the various agricultural negotiations currently underway in the WTO.
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Agriculture: U.S.-China Trade Issues

Agriculture: U.S.-China Trade Issues

Date: October 16, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: With China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, U.S. agricultural interests were hopeful that longstanding barriers to trade with that vast and growing market would begin to fall. However, critics charge that China is failing to honor commitments to open its markets, affecting U.S. exports of grains, oilseeds, meat and poultry, and other products. U.S. agriculture and trade officials have been working to resolve these differences.
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Aircraft Hushkits: Noise and International Trade

Aircraft Hushkits: Noise and International Trade

Date: May 8, 2000
Creator: Fischer, John W
Description: This report discusses aircraft noise regulations as they relate to hushkits, which is a combination of strategies designed to reduce aircraft noise. These strategies can include new technologies, redesigned engine enclosures, replacement engine components, entirely new engines, or a combination of any of the above. This report dicusses the new EU regulation limiting hushkitted commercial jet aircraft in the EU, the United States' response to this regulation, and the effect this could have on international air travel relations.
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Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan

Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan

Date: August 25, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be.
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America COMPETES Act: Programs, Funding, and Selected Issues

America COMPETES Act: Programs, Funding, and Selected Issues

Date: April 17, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report explores and describes in detail the America COMPETES Act (P.K. 110-69), which became law on August 9, 2007. The act responds to concerns that the United States may not be able to compete economically with other nations in the future due to insufficient investment today in science and technology research and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce development. This report explains the aims and design of the America COMPETES Act, what funding developments the act authorizes, what education activities the act involves, and related legislation and government programs.
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American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Description: This report identifies four considerations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement that are particularly relevant for U.S. food and agriculture. It includes a partial snapshot of some of the higher-profile improvements in market access for agricultural products in the agreement, a summary of selected provisions beyond market access that are of interest to food and agriculture, a brief overview of industry reactions to the agreement, and a review of what would need to occur for the agreement to enter into force for the United States.
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