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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2003 Summit in Bangkok, Thailand
On October 20-21, 2003, the Eleventh APEC Leader’s Meeting (informal summit) was held in Bangkok, Thailand. The theme for APEC 2003 is “A World of Differences: Partnership for the Future” which is intended to bring together the best potential of all APEC economies to confront the challenges of the future, particularly in achieving the APEC goal of free and open trade and investment for developed APEC economies. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5577/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai
On October 20-21, 2001, the Ninth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by China in Shanghai. The office theme for APEC 2001 was “Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation” with the sub-themes of: (1) sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, (2) advancing trade and investment, and (3) promoting sustained economic growth. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2015/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2002 Summit in Mexico
On October 26-27, 2002, the Tenth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by Mexico in Las Cabos, Mexico. The official theme for APEC 2002 is to expand the benefits of cooperation for economic growth and development and enable the APEC vision to be implemented. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3541/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2002 Summit in Mexico
On October 26-27, 2002, the Tenth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by Mexico in Las Cabos, Mexico. The official theme for APEC 2002 is to expand the benefits of cooperation for economic growth and development and enable the APEC vision to be implemented. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3539/
Mercosur: Evolution and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9517/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9334/
Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2026/
Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3559/
Japan's Global Trade Surplus: Its Nature and Significance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs84/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea
This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103059/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with Rules of Origin (ROO) in three parts: [1] a detailed description of the reasons that country-of-origin rules are important with brief descriptions of U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations; [2] a brief discussion of some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO; and [3] a description of some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122323/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227793/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Topics include similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227792/
International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress
Report concerning a variety of issues faced by the 112th Congress. Topics include trade negotiations with South Korea, Panama, Colombia, and China, export controls and sanctions, and international financial institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227698/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling
Report that covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228155/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
This report looks at how free trade areas (FTAs) affect U.S. trade policy, specifically tariffs. It looks closely at the Bush Administration's Trade Promotion Policy, and pending FTAs leftover from this administration. Additionally, it looks at the Obama Administration's work in the prospective Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282334/
China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy
This report starts out by describing China's policy of pegging its currency to the U.S. dollar at an exchange rate of roughly 8.28 yuan to the dollar. As a result, the exchange rate between the yuan and the dollar basically stayed the same. The report discusses most significant events concerning China's currency policy and its impact on U.S. trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93977/
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98126/
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87384/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6368/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5552/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3521/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3520/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3519/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3518/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3517/
Trade and the Americas
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Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3515/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1996/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5557/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5556/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5555/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5554/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5553/
Regional Free Trade Partners and U.S. Interests: What's Next?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs264/
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98127/
The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 112th Congress
Report that discusses the trade issues that the 112th Congress could face and the political and economic context in which these issues are being debated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227665/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling
This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228156/
The U.S.-EU Beef Hormone Dispute
This report discusses the long-standing and acrimonious trade dispute between the United States and the European Union (EU) over the EU's decision to ban hormone-treated meat. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287939/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling
This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276878/
Domestic Content Restrictions: The Buy American Act and Complementary Provisions of Federal Law
This report provides an overview of the Buy American Act, Trade Agreements Act, Berry Amendment (including its former specialty metals provision), and Buy America Act, specifically highlighting the commonalities and differences among them. The report also lists other federal domestic content restrictions codified in the U.S. Code. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276876/
Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP): In Brief
This report provides a brief overview of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP), and discusses the congressional interest, market access, regulatory issues, and trade-related rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332857/
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications
This report explores intersecting issues regarding Europe's preferential trade agreements (PTA) in three parts. The first section discusses the status and primary motivations of the EU's PTAs currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103086/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96665/
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96743/
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview
Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122240/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29527/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9757/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9903/