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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: July 10, 2007
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
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U.S.-Taiwan Trade Relations

U.S.-Taiwan Trade Relations

Date: July 14, 2015
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report discusses the U.S. - Taiwan relations. U.S. trade data indicate that in 2014, Taiwan was the United States’ 10th largest merchandise trading partner (at $67.4 billion), 14th largest export market ($26.8 billion), and 12th largest source of imports ($40.6 billion).
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Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Date: September 12, 2005
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
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Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S Goals

Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
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AGOA III: Amendment to the African Growth and Opportunity Act

AGOA III: Amendment to the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Langton, Danielle
Description: This report discusses the African Growth and Opportunity Act, which seeks to spur economic development and help integrate Africa into the world trading system by granting trade preferences and other benefits to Sub-Saharan African countries that meet certain criteria relating to market reform and human rights.
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Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: March 11, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report discusses the impact of taxes on international trade and investment has been debated for decades. Most recently, a variety of bills addressing international taxation have been introduced in the 110th Congress—some would cut taxes for U.S. firms overseas, while others would increase taxes on foreign investment. The debate over taxes and foreign outsourcing has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment; questions arise over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. The debate over international taxation has again become prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current system affects outsourcing, and whether policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable.
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Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Description: The impact of taxes on international trade and foreign investment has had a place in tax policy debates for decades, although its prominence has waxed and waned. The debate has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment ; questions arise during such times over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. In recent months, the debate over international taxation again became prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current tax system likely affects outsourcing, and whether alternative tax policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable. This report applies economic analysis to both questions.
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China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: March 15, 2005
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges.
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Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA, H.R. 5724): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
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Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Date: January 28, 2013
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discuses the stealing a trade secret, which is a federal crime when the information relates to a product in interstate or foreign commerce, 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets), or when the intended beneficiary is a foreign power, 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage).
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Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Date: September 30, 2009
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: Low farm milk prices and declining dairy sector income in 2009 have renewed congressional interest in imposing new import barriers on milk protein concentrates (MPCs), which generally include casein, the main protein found in milk, and caseinates, a soluble form of casein. This report examines proposed import restrictions and potential trade policy implications.
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Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: Low farm milk prices and declining dairy sector income in 2009 have renewed congressional interest in imposing new import barriers on milk protein concentrates (MPCs), which generally include casein, the main protein found in milk, and caseinates, a soluble form of casein. This report examines proposed import restrictions and potential trade policy implications.
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Softwood Lumber Imports From Canada: Current Issues

Softwood Lumber Imports From Canada: Current Issues

Date: August 27, 2015
Creator: Hoover, Katie & Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report examines the status and current issues surrounding Canadian softwood lumber imports since 2006. After providing background information on what constitutes softwood lumber, the stakeholders in the dispute, and the history of the dispute, the report introduces the 2006 SLA and analyzes its impacts on the U.S. lumber industry as well as on the trade relationship between the United States and Canada. Finally, the report discusses the potential issues Congress may consider when the agreement expires in 2015.
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Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Date: September 23, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses the trade preferences and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) most-favored-nation (MFN) requirements, World Trade Organization (WTO) waivers for preferential trade agreements, and WTO waivers for U.S. preference programs.
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Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Date: October 26, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses the trade preferences and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) most-favored-nation (MFN) requirements, World Trade Organization (WTO) waivers for preferential trade agreements, and WTO waivers for U.S. preference programs.
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Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: World Trade Organization (WTO) Members must grant immediate and unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to the products of other Members regarding tariffs and other trade-related measures. Programs such as the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), under which developed countries grant preferential tariff rates to developing country goods, are facially inconsistent with this obligation because they accord goods of some countries more favorable tariff treatment than that accorded to goods of other WTO Members. This report discusses various issues regarding such trade preferences.
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Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Date: October 5, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses the trade preferences and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) most-favored-nation (MFN) requirements, World Trade Organization (WTO) waivers for preferential trade agreements, and WTO waivers for U.S. preference programs.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: March 14, 2006
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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Arab League Boycott of Israel

Arab League Boycott of Israel

Date: April 12, 2007
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report briefly discusses the Arab League's boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since Israel's founding in 1948, as well as U.S. efforts to end the boycott and prevent U.S. firms in participating in the boycott.
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Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Issues and Events

Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Issues and Events

Date: June 6, 2005
Creator: Gorte, Ross W. & Grimmett, Jeanne
Description: This report provides a concise historical account of the dispute over softwood lumber imports from Canada, summarizes the subsidy and injury evidence, and discusses current issues and events.
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World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

Date: July 10, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. It includes background on Doha and the significance of the negotiations, as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress.
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U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
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United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

Date: September 14, 2011
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses trade and economic relationship between the United States and Canada, which conduct the world’s largest bilateral trade relationship.
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The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products

The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products

Date: April 30, 2008
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report presents recent trends in U.S. fruit and vegetable trade, and highlights some of the factors contributing to these trends. This summary excludes trade data for tree nuts and processed tree nut products. Although not presented here, U.S. exports and imports of tree nuts and processed tree nut products (excluding peanuts) have shown continued increases, with a growing trade surplus of $1.8 billion in 2006.
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