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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World
This report compares the People's Republic of China's (PRC) and U.S. projections of global influence, with an emphasis on non-coercive means or "soft power," and suggests ways to think about U.S. foreign policy options in light of China's emergence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770615/
China's Foreign Policy: What Does It Mean for U.S. Global Interests?
This report provides analysis and discusses China's expanded international engagement. It also discusses implications for U.S. interests, policy options for the U.S. and the general challenges of China's political and economic clout in the international community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743448/
China-U.S. Relations in the 110th Congress: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report deals with U.S.-China relations during the 110th Congress (2007-2008) and with a number of key events involving China during the two-year period. These events included: China's anti-satellite weapon test (January 2007); the 17th Party Congress (October 2007); a crackdown against demonstrations in Tibet (March 2008); the election of a new, pro-engagement government in Taiwan (March 2008); the massive Sichuan earthquake (May 2008); and Beijing's hosting of the 2008 Olympics (August 2008). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743633/
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and economic landscape of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its relationship with the U.S. The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more than two decades, and the alliance has deepened further in recent years in order to address multiple regional threats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743617/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743513/
Expansion of WTO Information Technology Agreement Targets December Conclusion
This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) expansion and agreement to expand the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) and eliminate tariffs on 201 goods not included in the original 1996 ITA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743496/
Powering Africa: Challenges of and U.S. Aid for Electrification in Africa
This report discusses the Power Africa initiative; policy problems and challenges related to power sector development in Africa; long-term perspectives on energy poverty, need, and future development; and raises some possible oversight questions and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743481/
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit
This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743546/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report covers the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and U.S.-Mexico drug trafficking. It also looks at migration, environmental issues, legislation in the 111th Congress, and the relationship between the Obama Administration and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743391/
Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the challenges and opportunities raised by the globalized world of business, in which production becomes fragmented into discrete activities that can be spread geographically within and across national borders while remaining integrated organizationally within a multinational company or network of companies. Such globalized production networks are called supply chains or value-added networks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743506/
China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report addresses relevant policy questions in current U.S.-China relations, discusses trends and key legislation in the current Congress and provides a chronology of developments and high-level exchanges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743353/
U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects
This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba. It identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored, and also considers the potential consequences for trade in agricultural goods if bilateral trade were returned to a more normal footing. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743399/
The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment
This report covers the recent background of the Exon-Florio provision with special regards to issues faced in the 112th Congress. The Exon-Florio provision grants the President the authority to block proposed or pending foreign acquisitions of "persons engaged in interstate commerce in the United States" that threaten to impair the national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700544/
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border
This report discusses the implementation of trucking provisions set forth by NAFTA that would have opened the border states to cross-border trucking competition in 1995 and all of North America in 2000. The full implementation of the provisions has been stalled because of concern with the safety of Mexican trucks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700545/
EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude
This report provides background information and analysis of the U.S.-EU economic relationship for Members of the 111th Congress as they contemplate the costs and benefits of closer U.S. economic ties with the EU. It examines the economic and political framework of the relationship and the scope and magnitude of the ties based on data from various sources. In addition, the report analyzes the implications these factors have for U.S. economic policy toward the EU. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700555/
Burma: Economic Sanctions
This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700554/
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions
The issue of TPA reauthorization raises a number of questions regarding TPA itself and the pending legislation. This report addresses a number of those questions that are frequently asked, including the following: What is trade promotion authority? Is TPA necessary? What are trade negotiating objectives and how are they reflected in TPA statutes? What requirements does Congress impose on the President under TPA? Does TPA affect congressional authority on trade policy? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700891/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
This report discusses the trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for Firms program, which provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies to remain competitive in the changing international economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700835/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report covers the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and U.S.-Mexico drug trafficking. It also looks at migration, environmental issues, legislation in the 111th Congress, and the relationship between the Obama Administration and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700513/
U.S. Foreign Trade in Services: Definition, Patterns and Policy Challenges
This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. foreign trade in services. It includes an examination of definitions and examples of services to indicate their nature and scope; a review of the importance of services to the U.S. economy including U.S. foreign trade; and an analysis of the policy challenges that confront the United States, especially the challenge of negotiating a set of international rules on trade in services and the challenge of resolving disputes over trade in services with trading partners. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700867/
U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts
This report provides an overview of the current status, trends, and forecasts for U.S. import and export flows as well as certain balances. The purpose of this report is to provide current data and brief explanations for the various types of trade flows along with a brief discussion of trends that may require attention or point to the need for policy changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700803/
U.S.-South Korea Beef Dispute: Negotiations and Status
This report discusses the agreement regarding the beef imports from the United States to South Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700703/
The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications
This report is examines the provisions of the KORUS FTA in the context of the overall U.S.-South Korean economic relationship, U.S. objectives, and South Korean objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700788/
U.S. Foreign Trade in Services: Definition, Patterns and Policy Challenges
This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. foreign trade in services. It includes an examination of definitions and examples of services to indicate their nature and scope; a review of the importance of services to the U.S. economy including U.S. foreign trade; and an analysis of the policy challenges that confront the United States, especially the challenge of negotiating a set of international rules on trade in services and the challenge of resolving disputes over trade in services with trading partners. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700761/
China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States
This report discusses the economy of China and how it is has been affected by the recent economic downturn. China has recently enjoyed one of the world's fastest-growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth, but several Chinese industries have been hard by the crisis, and millions of workers have been laid off. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700624/
Economic Crisis in Greece
This report briefly discusses the current economic situation in Greece. Questions about whether Greece will stay in the Eurozone have resurfaced, as the government's stalemate with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Eurozone creditors has reached a critical point. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700652/
Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues
This report focuses on the relationship between intellectual property right (IPR) provisions in international and U.S. trade policy and access to medicines. This issue represents one component of a broader debate about the relationship between trade policy and public health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700643/
Ex-Im Bank's General Statutory Authority Expires
This report discusses the Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank), a wholly owned federal government corporation which seeks to provide direct loans, loan guarantees, and export credit insurance to: (1) support exports that the private sector is unwilling or unable to finance alone at commercially viable terms; and/or (2) counter government-backed financing offered by foreign countries through their export credit agency (ECA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700660/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700613/
China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States
This report discusses the economy of China and how it is has been affected by the recent economic downturn. China has recently enjoyed one of the world's fastest-growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth, but several Chinese industries have been hard by the crisis, and millions of workers have been laid off. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700627/
International Trade: Rules of Origin
This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, it describes the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, it discusses some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. It concludes with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700903/
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report discusses the open economy and society of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), provides a general description of the UAE's government and political structure, and outlines the effects of the recent global economic downturn on the UAE in general and on the city of Dubai in particular. It also describes U.S. concern over the proliferation of advanced technology in relation to a recently-signed U.S.-UAE civilian nuclear agreement, due to the UAE economy and the UAE's lax export controls. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700662/
Cuba Sanctions: Legislative Restrictions Limiting the Normalization of Relations
This report provides background information Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), and discusses U.S. trade negotiating objectives, procedures for congressional-executive notification and consultation, and expedited legislative procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689504/
U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2009: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. relations with Vietnam, including policy issues, the economic and political situation in Vietnam, and a list of pertinent legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689336/
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy
This report presents background and analysis on the development of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which expired on July 1, 2007. The report also includes a summary of the major provisions under the recently expired authority and a discussion of the issues that have arisen in the debate over TPA renewal, as well as policy options available to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689380/
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides an overview of U.S.-China economic relations, surveys major trade disputes, and lists bills introduced in the 111th Congress that would impact bilateral commercial ties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689356/
U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress
This report will examine each of these trade issues, discussing their main elements and exploring their implications for the 111th Congress. This will be followed by an analysis of key trends in bilateral trade to discern any potential sources of trade friction in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689252/
U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security
This report describes and analyzes U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP) role in the U.S. import process. The first section of the report describes the three overarching goals of U.S. import policy and the tension among them. Second, the report summarizes recent legislative developments and provides a legislative history of customs laws, followed by an overview of the U.S. import process as it operates today. Third, the import process and CBP's role in it are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689264/
U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2009: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. relations with Vietnam, including policy issues, the economic and political situation in Vietnam, and a list of pertinent legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689217/
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689260/
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
This report discusses the free trade agreement (FTA) that the United States and Panama signed on June 28, 2007. While Panama's government ratified the FTA in July 2007, Congress has not yet implemented ratification legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689156/
Mexico's Free Trade Agreements
This report provides an overview of Mexico's free trade agreements, its motivations for trade liberalization and entering into free trade agreements, and some of the issues Mexico faces in addressing its economic challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689248/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling
This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689214/
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit
This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689387/
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions
The issue of Trade Promotion Authority ("TPA") reauthorization raises a number of questions regarding TPA itself and the pending legislation. This report addresses a number of those questions that are frequently asked. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689200/
Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689275/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689335/
The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate
This report discusses the Export Administration Act in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under IEEPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689111/
The Global Economic Downturn and Protectionism
This report develops three scenarios to approximate different dimensions of the relationship between the global economic downturn and protectionism. The scenarios are not predictions, but descriptions of how and why pressures for protection could be manifested and transmitted under different circumstances and assumptions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689164/
Iran Sanctions
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689117/