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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda
This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. The report includes background on Doha and the significance fo the negotiations as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93974/
Brazil's WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview
This report provides a brief overview of Brazil's case against the U.S. cotton program, the evolution and current status of the case, and the potential role for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94210/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462236/
U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview
This report discusses the application of antidumping and countervailing duty law to the goods of nonmarket economy (NME) countries, including the decision of the Department of Commerce (DOC) in 2007 to change its long-standing policy and apply CVD law to such goods; reviews China's successful case in the World Trade Organization challenging the U.S. application of CVDs to Chinese products and the status of U.S. compliance efforts in the case; examines the December 2011 decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in GPX Int'l Tire Corp. v. United States holding that the U.S. CVD law does not authorize DOC to apply CVDs to NME country goods; summarizes the subsequently enacted P.L. 112-99, signed March 13, 2012, a statute authorizing DOC to apply CVDs to such products; and notes recent developments in the GPX litigation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463451/
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements
This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues related to Free Trade Agreements approved by Congress: (1) those that relate to the FTA provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and (2) those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. This report does not address other labor issues in the various free trade agreements, including cooperative consultation provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463201/
Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support
This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. The report discusses a key question that policy makers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO? The answer depends not only on cost, but also on the proposal's design and objectives, as described below. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462631/
The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate
This report discusses the Export Administration Act (EAA) in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462426/
Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills
This report discusses the current process by which duty suspension bills and other provisions are introduced, reviewed by several government agencies and committee staff, made available for public comment, and finally included in omnibus miscellaneous trade and technical corrections bills (MTBs) legislation reported out by the committees of jurisdiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29692/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33078/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
Granting Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status requires a change in law because Russia is prohibited from receiving unconditional and permanent NTR under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. This provision includes the so-called Jackson-Vanik amendment. Extension of PNTR has implications for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This report examines this legislative issue in the context of Russian accession to the WTO and U.S.-Russian economic ties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33091/
Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview
This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29721/
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the current U.S. system for taxing international businesses. The report begins with an overview of current law and of possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31427/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
As global economic competition heightens, many firms and workers face difficult adjustment problems. Congress has responded to these adjustment costs by authorizing four trade adjustment assistance (TAA) programs to assist trade-impacted workers, firms, farmers, and communities. This report discusses the TAA program for firms (TAAF). The TAAF program provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies and make other adjustments to remain competitive in the changing international economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87360/
The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative
The 112th Congress may consider reforms of the U.S. export control system. The balance between national security and export competitiveness has made the subject of export controls controversial for decades. Through the Export Administration Act (EAA), the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), and other authorities, the United States restricts the export of defense items or munitions; so-called “dual-use” goods and technology—items with both civilian and military applications; certain nuclear materials and technology; and items that would assist in the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons or the missile technology used to deliver them. U.S. export controls are also used to restrict exports to certain countries on which the United States imposes economic sanctions. At present, the EAA has expired and dual-use controls are maintained under IEEPA authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87187/
The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative
This report discusses some of the proposed legislation and other issues related to the U.S. export control system. In considering the future of the U.S. export control system, Congress may weigh the merits of a unified export control system—the end result of the President's proposal—or the continuation of the present bifurcated system by reauthorizing the present Export Administration Act (EAA) or writing new legislation. In doing so, Congress may debate the record of the present dual-use system maintained by emergency authority, the aims and effectiveness of the present non-proliferation control regimes, the maintenance of the defense industrial base, and the delicate balance between the maintenance of economic competitiveness and the preservation of national security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87188/
U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations
This report examines the potential implications of a prospective Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) on the U.S. textile manufacturing industry. The TPP is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation among 11 Pacific Rim countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272034/
The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy
This report provides an overview of the law and policy of trade secrets. It discusses the role of trade secrets in six sections: Trade Secrets and Innovation Policy, An Overview of Trade Secret Law (Basic Principles, and Sources of Law), The Economic Espionage Act, Trade Secrets and Patents (Introduction to the Patent System, Trade Secrets and Patents Compared, and The Prior Commercial User Defense), Congressional Issues and Options, and Concluding Observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276918/
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report provides background on China's economic rise, describes its current economic structure, identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth, and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276930/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2005, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10117/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2005, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10116/
Aircraft Hushkits: Noise and International Trade
This report discusses aircraft noise regulations as they relate to hushkits, which is a combination of strategies designed to reduce aircraft noise. These strategies can include new technologies, redesigned engine enclosures, replacement engine components, entirely new engines, or a combination of any of the above. This report dicusses the new EU regulation limiting hushkitted commercial jet aircraft in the EU, the United States' response to this regulation, and the effect this could have on international air travel relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1341/
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227794/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1997/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1998/
U.S. Merchandise Trade Statistics: 1948-2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1993/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10066/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2001, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1375/
WTO Doha Round: The Agricultural Negotiations
This report assesses the current status of agricultural negotiations in the Doha Round of trade negotiations of the World Trade Organization (WTO); traces the developments leading up to the December 2005 Hong Kong Ministerial; examines the major agricultural negotiating proposals; discusses the potential effects of a successful Doha Round agreement on global trade, income, U.S. farm policy, and U.S. agriculture; and provides background on the WTO, the Doha Round, the key negotiating groups, and a chronology of key events relevant to the agricultural negotiations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10355/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10067/
Legal Services in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and U.S. Effect
This report provides a broad overview of the treatment of legal services under the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and its potential effect on laws and rules governing the provision of legal services by foreign lawyers in the United States and legal ethics rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10791/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1331/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1337/
The U.S. Tobacco Industry in Domestic and World Markets
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs513/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5571/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5570/
America's Growing Current Account Deficit: Its Cause and What It Means for the Economy
This report discusses the reasons for the U.S. current account deficit, popularly known as the trade deficit, and which is on the rise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5574/
Global Markets: Evaluating Some Risks the U.S. May Face
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5576/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8784/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8932/
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8540/
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs585/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5565/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5562/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5561/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5567/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5560/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5568/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5564/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5569/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5566/