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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report covers the recent background of the Exon-Florio provision with special regards to issues faced in the 112th Congress. The Exon-Florio provision grants the President the authority to block proposed or pending foreign acquisitions of "persons engaged in interstate commerce in the United States" that threaten to impair the national security.
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Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview

Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress's oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy.
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Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Date: February 5, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad.
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The U.S. Trade Deficit, the Dollar, and the Price of Oil

The U.S. Trade Deficit, the Dollar, and the Price of Oil

Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the relationship between the dollar and the price of oil and how the two might interact. It includes sections describing real and nominal oil prices, major currencies, oil exchanges, oil supply and demand and factors affecting the international exchange value of the dollar: capital flows, the U.S. financial balance, the foreign exchage market, and the U.S. trade deficit.
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: February 16, 2010
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan (calling itself Republic of China (ROC)), including policy issues for Congress and legislation.
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The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: This report presents a summary of trade negotiations and the proposed U.S.-Panama free trade agreement (FTA). The proposed U.S.-Panama FTA is a comprehensive agreement. Some 88% of U.S. commercial and industrial exports would become duty-free upon implementation, with remaining tariffs phased out over a 10-year period.
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Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Date: February 23, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report provides background on free trade areas (FTAs) -- arrangements among two or more countries under which they agree to eliminate tariffs and nontariff barriers on trade in goods among themselves -- why countries form them, and how they relate to U.S. trade policy. It also discusses recent developments, the economic impact of FTAs, the relation of FTAs to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and debate points, as well as general conclusions and implications for Congress.
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: February 24, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
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Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

Date: March 11, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report examines the major features of economic models being used to estimate the effects of trade agreements. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the models as an aid in helping Congress evaluate the economic impact of trade agreements on the U.S. economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

Date: March 22, 2010
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: The first section of this report describes the status and primary motivations of the EU's preferential trade agreements (PTAs) currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy.
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The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 111th Congress

The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 111th Congress

Date: March 24, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report provides analysis of U.S. trade policy including factors that make up the current economic and political climate, grade issues, the depate over U.S. trade policy. It concludes with an examination of some of the options available to Congress and the pros and cons of each.
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The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

Date: March 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78), from the time that it went into effect (January 1, 2004) over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action.
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U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

Date: March 31, 2010
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mexico trade and economic trends, the Mexican economy, the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and major trade issues between the United States and Mexico.
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U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues

U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues

Date: April 2, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: In December 2008, the United States and Russia signed a protocol aimed at resolving various emerging trade issues between the two countries in order to continue U.S. livestock and poultry exports to Russia through the end of 2009. This report examines the current trade relationship between the U.S. and Russia in regards to meat and poultry.
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Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Date: April 7, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: The report provides a brief background section on the significance of trade in services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
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Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Date: April 8, 2010
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes.
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The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

Date: April 14, 2010
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Vaughn, Bruce
Description: This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP.
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Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: An Overview of Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: An Overview of Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an overview of evidence based on roreign investment data that analyzes the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, as well as the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report addresses the issue of jobs outsourcing by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
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What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. The U.S. trade deficit with the People's Republic of China (China) remains a major source of bilateral tension. Members of Congress and other U.S. government officials often point to the bilateral trade imbalance as evidence that China is not competing fairly in the global market.
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Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

Date: April 22, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report provides a general overview of Iran's economy, addresses related U.S. policy concerns, and discusses policy options for Congress. The purpose of this report is two-fold. First, it provides insight into important macroeconomic trends, policy reforms and objectives, key economic sectors, international trade patterns, and sources of foreign exchange. Second, in the context of U.S. economic sanctions imposed for national security and foreign policy reasons, it evaluates Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities and discusses issues and options for Congress.
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Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: April 26, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and Bahrain's relationship with the United States.
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Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report addresses the issue of jobs outsourcing by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department