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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: November 29, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Report that discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. In addition, the United States has expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firing in 1995-1996. However, there is no defense treaty or alliance with Taiwan. Several policy issues are of concern to Congress for legislation, oversight, or other action: 1) the effectiveness of the Administration in applying leverage to improve Taiwan's self-defense as well as to maintain peace and stability; 2) the role of Congress in determining security assistance, defense commitments, or policy reviews; 3) whether trends in the Taiwan Strait are stabilizing or destabilizing and how the Administration's management of policy has affected these trends; and 4) whether the United States would go to war with China and how conflict might be prevented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: August 2, 2011
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report, updated as warranted, discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Date: August 28, 2012
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: Report that gives an overview of 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets) and 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage). It also describes what constitutes as a stolen trade secret, and how such crimes are prosecuted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah; Hanrahan, Charles E. & Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: This report provides an overview of the federal agencies that participate in U.S. export promotion efforts and the issues that they raise for Congress. It proceeds first by discussing the coordination, budgets, and functions of federal government agencies involved in promoting exports. Next, the report provides an overview of the missions and activities of key federal government agencies that support exports. The last section of the report discusses agency-related issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
WTO Decisions and Their Effect on U.S. Law

WTO Decisions and Their Effect on U.S. Law

Date: May 24, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J
Description: Congress has comprehensively dealt with the legal effect of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and dispute settlement results in the United States in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA), P.L. 103-465, which provides that domestic law prevails over conflicting provisions of WTO agreements and prohibits private remedies based on alleged violations of these agreements. As a result, WTO agreements and adopted WTO rulings in conflict with federal law do not have domestic legal effect unless and until Congress or the Executive Branch, as the case may be, takes action to modify or remove the statute, regulation, or regulatory practice at issue. Violative state laws may be withdrawn by the state or, in rare circumstances, invalidated through legal action by the federal government. In addition, the URAA places requirements on federal regulatory action taken to implement WTO decisions and contains provisions specific to the implementation of dispute settlement panel and appellate reports that fault U.S. actions in trade remedy proceedings.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Sales of New Domestic and Imported Automobiles from 1977 through 1984, With U.S. Market Shares of Countries of Origin

U.S. Sales of New Domestic and Imported Automobiles from 1977 through 1984, With U.S. Market Shares of Countries of Origin

Date: April 5, 1985
Creator: Flaherty, Kevin
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Sales of New Domestic and Imported Automobiles from 1977 through 1984, With U.S. Market Shares of Countries of Origin

U.S. Sales of New Domestic and Imported Automobiles from 1977 through 1984, With U.S. Market Shares of Countries of Origin

Date: April 5, 1985
Creator: Flaherty, Kevin
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sanctions Against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress

Sanctions Against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress

Date: February 13, 1987
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Burma: Economic Sanctions

Burma: Economic Sanctions

Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Niksch, Larry A. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: On October 19, 2007, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13449. This followed a September 25, 2007 statement by President Bush that sanctions against Burma, which have been in place since 1997, would be tightened to specifically target leading Burmese officials and impose additional financial and travel sanctions. This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Primer on Energy Derivatives and Their Regulation

Primer on Energy Derivatives and Their Regulation

Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: Prices of oil and other energy commodities are set in futures and derivatives markets, where producers, commercial users, and financial speculators buy and sell contracts whose value is linked to the price of the underlying commodity. Trading occurs on regulated futures exchanges and in a largely unregulated over-the-counter (OTC) market; both forms of trading are global in scope. This report presents basic information about these markets, the instruments traded, the regulatory framework, speculation, and current legislative proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress

High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress

Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: McLoughlin, Glenn J. & Fergusson, Ian F
Description: Congress has a strong interest in export control policy with regard to technologies that may have both commercial and military applications outside of the United States. Through its constitutionally delegated authority to regulate foreign commerce, Congress has the authority to control exports for national security or foreign policy purposes. This report examines congressional interest in the exportation of High Performance Computers, which are either single computing machines (usually called supercomputers) or a cluster of easily available, high-end workstations or personal computers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the “oil-for-food” program which represents a longstanding U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining pressure on the Iraqi government to comply with all relevant U.N. Security Council resolutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations

Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations

Date: April 6, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: This report discusses issues with the “oil-for-food” program (OFFP), which was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. The program terminated following the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the assumption of sovereignty by an interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, and the lifting of Saddam-era U.N. sanctions. However, since the fall of the regime, there have been new allegations of mismanagement and abuse of the program, including allegations that Saddam Hussein’s regime manipulated the program to influence U.N. officials, contractors, and politicians and businessmen in numerous countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Burma: Economic Sanctions

Burma: Economic Sanctions

Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Niksch, Larry A. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: On October 19, 2007, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13449. This followed a September 25, 2007 statement by President Bush that sanctions against Burma, which have been in place since 1997, would be tightened to specifically target leading Burmese officials and impose additional financial and travel sanctions. This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

Comparing Global Influence: China's and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Lum, Thomas; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Cook, Nicolas & Coipuram, Thomas, Jr.
Description: This report compares the People's Republic of China's (PRC) and U.S. projections of global influence, with an emphasis on non-coercive means or "soft power," and suggests ways to think about U.S. foreign policy options in light of China's emergence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives

Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives

Date: May 20, 1981
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: The report examines the current debate in the United States over proposals for increased U.S. military sales to China. The study first examines the background of U.S.-China security ties since the Nixon Administration, and then sets forth the parameters of the current debate by noting a number of issues concerning U.S. military transfers to China on which all sides generally agree. It shows that Americans familiar with the issue tend to identify with different groups of opinion or "schools of thought" on the question of U.S. military transfers to China, and provides a detailed pro-con analysis of the issue. It concludes by noting cross pressures that are likely to greet U.S. policy makers as they grapple with this issue in the months ahead and offers an assessment of four policy options of possible use by U.S. policymakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy

International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy

Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report provides general background on U.S. policy regarding the international trade in small arms and light weapons (SA/LW). It outlines major questions associated with the international trade in these items, and reviews United States efforts to assist in controlling the illicit transfers of these items. This report will be revised as developments warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Specialty Metal Provision and the Berry Amendment: Issues for Congress

The Specialty Metal Provision and the Berry Amendment: Issues for Congress

Date: October 28, 2008
Creator: Bailey Grasso, Valerie
Description: This report examines the specialty metal provision which was originally part of the Berry Amendment, the potential oversight issues for Congress, and options that Congress may wish to consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Labor Organization (ILO): Background in Brief

The International Labor Organization (ILO): Background in Brief

Date: August 27, 2015
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report discusses the International Labor Organization (ILO), and describes the ILO's mission, structure, and functions; presents case studies on how the ILO offers assistance to countries in promoting worker rights; and identifies issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Date: January 7, 2016
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

Date: March 20, 2006
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report various sides of the debate related to domestic launch services, such as satellite export issues, the development of new launch vehicles by the private sector, and whether tax incentives or loan guarantees should be created for companies attempting to develop lower-cost launch vehicles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department