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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5066/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5067/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3195/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5062/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5063/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3194/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3205/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5080/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5081/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5082/
Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3209/
Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5084/
Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns
This meeting of the decision making body of the WTO was expected to make decisions that would lead to another round of negotiations on a wide variety of trade rules and related issues. Although the United States continues to assert the necessity of pursuing the twin goals of free trade and environmental protection and to argue that these need not be in conflict, controversy remains over how the multilateral trading system should address the specifics of environmental issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1004/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5362/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5364/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5365/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5366/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5367/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5368/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5369/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6308/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6309/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3406/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3407/
Waste Trade and the Basel Convention: Background and Update
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs783/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9031/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9753/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8106/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8586/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9321/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report, updated as warranted, discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86641/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of the ROC. Two other relevant parts of the "one China" policy are the August 17, 1982, U.S.-PRC Joint Communique and the "Six Assurances" to Taiwan. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. The United States also expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firings in 1995-1996. However, the U.S.-ROC Mutual Defense Treaty terminated in 1979. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86640/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance for Taiwan, particularly policy issues for Congress. It also lists sales of major defense articles and services to Taiwan, as approved by the President and notified to Congress since 1990. This report uses a variety of unclassified consultations and citations in the United States and Taiwan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103156/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103157/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of the ROC. Two other relevant parts of the "one China" policy are the August 17, 1982, U.S.-PRC Joint Communique and the "Six Assurances" to Taiwan. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. The United States also expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firings in 1995-1996. However, the U.S.-ROC Mutual Defense Treaty terminated in 1979. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93957/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This CRS Report discusses U.S. security assistance for Taiwan, formally called the Republic of China (ROC), particularly policy issues for Congress. It also lists sales of major defense articles and services to Taiwan, as approved by the President and notified to Congress since 1990. This report uses a variety of unclassified consultations and citations in the United States and Taiwan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31398/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96736/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
Report that discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227965/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. In addition, the United States has expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firing in 1995-1996. However, there is no defense treaty or alliance with Taiwan. Several policy issues are of concern to Congress for legislation, oversight, or other action: 1) the effectiveness of the Administration in applying leverage to improve Taiwan's self-defense as well as to maintain peace and stability; 2) the role of Congress in determining security assistance, defense commitments, or policy reviews; 3) whether trends in the Taiwan Strait are stabilizing or destabilizing and how the Administration's management of policy has affected these trends; and 4) whether the United States would go to war with China and how conflict might be prevented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10484/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8681/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
This report, updated as warranted, discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93956/
Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832
Report that gives an overview of 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets) and 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage). It also describes what constitutes as a stolen trade secret, and how such crimes are prosecuted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227785/
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10160/
U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the federal agencies that participate in U.S. export promotion efforts and the issues that they raise for Congress. It proceeds first by discussing the coordination, budgets, and functions of federal government agencies involved in promoting exports. Next, the report provides an overview of the missions and activities of key federal government agencies that support exports. The last section of the report discusses agency-related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29636/
WTO Decisions and Their Effect on U.S. Law
Congress has comprehensively dealt with the legal effect of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and dispute settlement results in the United States in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA), P.L. 103-465, which provides that domestic law prevails over conflicting provisions of WTO agreements and prohibits private remedies based on alleged violations of these agreements. As a result, WTO agreements and adopted WTO rulings in conflict with federal law do not have domestic legal effect unless and until Congress or the Executive Branch, as the case may be, takes action to modify or remove the statute, regulation, or regulatory practice at issue. Violative state laws may be withdrawn by the state or, in rare circumstances, invalidated through legal action by the federal government. In addition, the URAA places requirements on federal regulatory action taken to implement WTO decisions and contains provisions specific to the implementation of dispute settlement panel and appellate reports that fault U.S. actions in trade remedy proceedings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7955/
U.S. Sales of New Domestic and Imported Automobiles from 1977 through 1984, With U.S. Market Shares of Countries of Origin
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9584/
U.S. Sales of New Domestic and Imported Automobiles from 1977 through 1984, With U.S. Market Shares of Countries of Origin
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9578/
Sanctions Against South Africa: Activities of the 99th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8421/
Burma: Economic Sanctions
On October 19, 2007, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13449. This followed a September 25, 2007 statement by President Bush that sanctions against Burma, which have been in place since 1997, would be tightened to specifically target leading Burmese officials and impose additional financial and travel sanctions. This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10717/
Primer on Energy Derivatives and Their Regulation
Prices of oil and other energy commodities are set in futures and derivatives markets, where producers, commercial users, and financial speculators buy and sell contracts whose value is linked to the price of the underlying commodity. Trading occurs on regulated futures exchanges and in a largely unregulated over-the-counter (OTC) market; both forms of trading are global in scope. This report presents basic information about these markets, the instruments traded, the regulatory framework, speculation, and current legislative proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10772/