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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98127/
The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress
This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98126/
Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP): In Brief
This report provides a brief overview of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP), and discusses the congressional interest, market access, regulatory issues, and trade-related rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332857/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling
This report covers the dispute between the U.S and its neighbors Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. The dispute was brought before the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462023/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling
This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463123/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
This report covers the country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Canada and Mexico say that the (COOL) system is unfair and does not meet its original objectives, while Congress is considering legislation that would further expand labeling requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462835/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31461/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29527/
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications
This report explores intersecting issues regarding Europe's preferential trade agreements (PTA) in three parts. The first section discusses the status and primary motivations of the EU's PTAs currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103086/
JETRO and International Trade Promotion by Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs162/
Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses: President Obama's trade reorganization proposal; the context of the trade reorganization debate; key issues that Congress may face related to the debate; potential policy options for Congress; and the outlook for trade reorganization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227769/
Is Globalization the Force Behind Recent Poor U.S. Wage Performance?: An Analysis
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1991/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress will consider and seek to influence trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales accounting for one-quarter of farm income, policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector's financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1370/
Agricultural Trade in the 106th Congress: A Review of Issues
The 106th Congress considered a number of trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural commodities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion, to $49.2 billion. Agricultural exports did climb back to $50.9 billion in FY2000, and are now projected at $53 billion in FY2001. However, the pace of recovery concerned many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress. Although they recognize that many world economic, farm production, political, and weather factors influence exports, many of these groups believe that the agricultural sector's future prosperity also depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agricultural exports from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1062/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
Leading markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada, Mexico, Japan, China, the European Union (EU), Taiwan, and Korea. The United States dominates world markets for corn, wheat, and cotton. Most U.S. agricultural imports are high-value products. The biggest import suppliers are Canada and the EU. Among the fastest-growing markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada and Mexico. Both the EU and the U.S. subsidize their agricultural sectors, but overall the EU out subsidizes the U.S. The U.S. has the most diverse food aid programs; others limit food aid to development assistance and emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10522/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 106th Congress
Agricultural interests have been following trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural products. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion. USDA forecasts agricultural exports at $50.5 billion in FY2000 and $51.5 billion in FY2001. However, the projected agricultural trade surpluses for those years, of $11.5 billion and $12 billion, would be less than half the FY1996 surplus of $27.2 billion. Many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress believe that the sector's future prosperity depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agriculture from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1055/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
Leading markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada, Mexico, Japan, China, the European Union (EU), Taiwan, and Korea. The United States dominates world markets for corn, wheat, and cotton. Most U.S. agricultural imports are high-value products. The biggest import suppliers are Canada and the EU. Among the fastest-growing markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada and Mexico. Both the EU and the U.S. subsidize their agricultural sectors, but overall the EU out subsidizes the U.S. The U.S. has the most diverse food aid programs; others limit food aid to development assistance and emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10521/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1054/
Agriculture in WTO Negotiations
The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) fifth ministerial conference (held September 10-14, 2003 in Cancun, Mexico) ended without an agreement on a framework for continuing multilateral negotiations on agricultural trade liberalization. The inconclusive end of the Cancun ministerial places in doubt the ability of WTO member countries to complete the current round of negotiations by the scheduled January 1, 2005 deadline. This report discusses the various agricultural negotiations currently underway in the WTO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9076/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9757/
Agriculture in the WTO Doha Round: The Framework Agreement and Next Steps
Member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) reached agreement on July 31, 2004 on a framework for negotiating agricultural trade liberalization in the multilateral trade round known as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). The framework, part of a work program for all negotiating issues in the DDA (nonagricultural market access, services, trade facilitation, etc.), sets the stage for negotiations, now underway, to determine specific targets or formulas (“modalities”) for curbing trade-distorting domestic support, reducing trade barriers and eliminating export subsidies. If agreed to, the agriculture modalities report would be on the agenda of the WTO’s Sixth Ministerial Conference in December 2005, and negotiations could be completed during 2006. In the meantime, the President has requested a two-year extension of trade promotion authority procedures (TPA, also known as fast-track) for considering legislation to implement trade agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9099/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of an agreement is being readied for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. However, serious differences between Brazil and the United States, similar to those that led to the collapse of the September 2003 WTO talks in Cancún, Mexico, invite a cautious assessment. The Miami ministerial may determine if the FTAA negotiations proceed on time and with the goal of achieving a comprehensive agreement, as first conceived. The 108th Congress has followed developments closely as it exercises its expanded consultative and oversight role per the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5601/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of an agreement is being readied for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. However, serious differences between Brazil and the United States, similar to those that led to the collapse of the September 2003 WTO talks in Cancún, Mexico, invite a cautious assessment. The Miami ministerial may determine if the FTAA negotiations proceed on time and with the goal of achieving a comprehensive agreement, as first conceived. The 108th Congress will likely follow developments closely as it exercises its expanded consultative and oversight role per the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5600/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, the second completed for the November 1, 2002 trade ministerial in Quito, Ecuador. A year later, the third draft is expected at the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress, for an FTAA to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress will play a crucial role during this last phase of the negotiations given its expanded consultative and oversight authority as defined in the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5597/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, with a third draft expected to be completed for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. Currently there are serious differences between Brazil and the United States, the co-chairs of the trade negotiating committee, which will need to be resolved by then. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress, for an FTAA to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress will play a crucial role during this last phase of the negotiations given its expanded consultative and oversight authority as defined in the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5598/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of theAmericas in Santiago,Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, with a third draft expected to be completed for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. Currently there are serious differences between Brazil and the United States, the co-chairs of the trade negotiating committee, which will need to be resolved by then. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress, for an FTAA to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress will play a crucial role during this last phase of the negotiations given its expanded consultative and oversight authority as defined in the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5599/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, the second completed for the November 1, 2002 trade ministerial in Quito, Ecuador. The many sections of “bracketed” text indicate that there are still significant differences to be worked out. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress at the earliest, for an FTAA agreement to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress, having an expanded oversight authority as defined in the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210), will play a crucial role during this last phase of the FTAA negotiations. This report will be updated periodically. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5596/
Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5580/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5545/
Changing Causes of the U.S. Trade Deficit
The nation’s trade deficit is equal to the imbalance between national investment and national saving. The borrowing needs of the U.S. private sector declined, the public sector borrowing needs increased, and a stable U.S. national saving investment gap continued to be filled by foreign lending as a result. This is largely the result of a few Asian countries purchasing U.S. assets to mitigate or prevent their currencies from appreciating against the dollar. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6077/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6074/
Why U.S. Agricultural Exports Have Declined in the 1980s
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8863/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The negotiating groups completed a draft agreement in January 2001, which was presented at the third Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City on April 20-22, 2001. President Bush expressed strong support for the FTAA and concrete progress has been made in moving it forward. Yet, differences in priorities among the countries are becoming increasingly evident, suggesting that the FTAA faces many policy hurdles in both the U.S. Congress and the hemisphere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2029/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of the agreement was presented at the Miami trade ministerial held November 20-21, 2003. Deep differences remain unresolved, however, and, as reflected in the Ministerial Declaration, have taken the FTAA in a new direction. It calls for a two-tier framework comprising a set of “common rights and obligations” for all countries, augmented by voluntary plurilateral arrangements with country benefits related to commitments. A follow-up meeting in Puebla, Mexico was unable to clarify the details of this arrangement and negotiations will continue in late April 2004, when it is hoped that specific commitments will be defined. This report provides background and analysis for Congress on the proposed FTAA and will be updated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6740/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan for completing a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 1, 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of the agreement was presented at the November 2003 Miami trade ministerial. The Ministerial Declaration, negotiated largely by the two co-chairs, Brazil and the United States, took the FTAA in a new direction, away from the comprehensive, single undertaking principle, toward a two-tier framework comprising a set of “common rights and obligations” for all countries, augmented by voluntary plurilateral arrangements with country benefits related to commitments. A follow-up meeting in early 2004 in Puebla, Mexico was unable to clarify this concept, highlighting the deep differences that remained between the United States and Brazil. FTAA talks subsequently stalled and the original January 1, 2005 deadline was missed. In the meantime, both Brazil and the United States are pursuing subregional trade pacts that may further complicate the negotiation process. Talks between Brazil and the United States may resume in early 2005, but it is still unclear if significant progress can be made on the FTAA this year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6322/
U.S. Trade Performance: Recent Trends and Prospects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs262/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2087/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2088/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2089/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2091/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2090/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2092/
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan for completing a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 1, 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of the agreement was presented at the November 2003 Miami trade ministerial. The Ministerial Declaration, negotiated largely by the two co-chairs, Brazil and the United States, took the FTAA in a new direction, away from the comprehensive, single undertaking principle, toward a two-tier framework comprising a set of “common rights and obligations” for all countries, augmented by voluntary plurilateral arrangements with country benefits related to commitments. A follow-up meeting in early 2004 in Puebla, Mexico was unable to clarify this concept, highlighting the deep differences that remained between the United States and Brazil. FTAA talks subsequently stalled and the original January 1, 2005 deadline was missed. In the meantime, both Brazil and the United States are pursuing subregional trade pacts that may further complicate the negotiation process. Talks between Brazil and the United States may resume in early 2005, but it is still unclear if significant progress can be made on the FTAA this year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6806/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9903/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9326/
NAFTA: Economic Effects on the United States After Three Years
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs496/
Agriculture in the WTO: Policy Commitments Made Under the Agreement on Agriculture
This report provides a review of the major agricultural policy commitments made by members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations completed in 1994, and the legal text that underlies those commitments. Most agricultural support commitments are embodied in the Agreement on Agriculture and it is the essential focus of this review. However, references are made to additional supporting legal texts that emerged as part of the Uruguay Round Agreement, as well as to related studies and references produced by the WTO, its member countries, and international organizations interested in trade and development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9100/
Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade
Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs380/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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