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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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Trade and the Americas
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Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
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Generalized System of Preferences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3504/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Dumping of Exports and Antidumping Duties: Implications for the U.S. Economy
Dumping in the United States is the selling of a product by a foreign producer at a price that is below the product’s sale price in the country of origin, or at a price that is lower than the cost of production. Under U.S. law such an action is considered an unfair trade practice. If that action is found to cause “material injury” to a competing domestic industry, an antidumping duty equal to the “dumping margin” will be levied against the foreign good. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3549/
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts
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Export Tax Benefits and the WTO: Foreign Sales Corporations and the Extraterritorial Replacement Provisions
The U.S. tax code’s Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) provisions provided a tax benefit for U.S. exporters. However, the European Union (EU) in 1997 charged that the provision was an export subsidy and thus contravened the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. A WTO ruling upheld the EU complaint, and to avoid WTO sanctioned retaliatory tariffs, U.S. legislation in November 2000 replaced FSC with the “extraterritorial income” (ETI) provisions, consisting of a redesigned export tax benefit of the same magnitude as FSC. The EU maintained that the new provisions are also not WTO-compliant and asked the WTO to rule on the matter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3561/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2089/
Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
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Cuba: An Economic Primer
This report provides an overview of the Cuban economy. Recent congressional interest in Cuba has centered on the partial lifting of trade sanctions on agricultural products and medicine. The 107th Congress may consider further easing of sanctions or other alterations to the trade embargo in effect since 1962. The paper first presents a brief historical overview of the Cuban economy. This history is characterized by dependence on major powers: first Spain, then the United States, and then the Soviet Union. The report then charts the different, and often conflicting, economic policy courses that Fidel Castro has pursued since his rise to power in 1959. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8429/
Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues
This report discusses the Export-Import Bank (Ex-In Bank), the chief U.S. government agency that helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3513/
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track): Labor Issues (Including H.R. 3005 and H.R. 3009)
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Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2002, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2111/
Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: Summary and Analysis of Selected Major Provisions of H.R. 3005 and Title XXI of H.R. 3009
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The Andean Trade Preference Act: A Comparison of House and Senate Versions of H.R. 3009
In 1991, the 102nd Congress passed the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), which provided for preferential treatment of selected U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as part of an incentive system to encourage legal trade as an alternative to illicit drug production. This brief report provides a side-by-side comparison of House- and Senate-passed bills that would reauthorize the ATPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3548/
NAFTA Labor Side Agreement: Lessons for the Workers Rights and Fast-Track Debate
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Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority
New “fast track,” or trade promotion, authority (TPA), legislation to implement trade agreements is at issue in the 107th Congress. Such authority would enable the Administration to submit negotiated foreign trade agreements to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-oriented enterprises that support TPA, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some farm groups argue that fast track ultimately will lead to new agreements that could have adverse effects on U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2262/
China-U.S. Trade Issues
U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2936/
U.S.-Japan Economic Ties: Status and Outlook
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Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
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Trade and the Americas
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Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3522/
Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3191/
Sudan: Economic Sanctions
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U.S.-EU Trade Tensions: Causes, Consequences, and Possible Cures
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3111/
U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2915/
Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3546/
Singapore-U.S. Free Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3563/
Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority
New “fast track” (or, trade promotion) authority (TPA) is at issue in the 107th Congress. Such authority could enable the Administration to submit negotiated foreign trade agreements to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Efforts to renew this authority, which expired in 1994, have not succeeded since then. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-oriented enterprises that support TPA, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some farm groups argue that fast track ultimately will lead to new agreements that could have adverse effects on U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2261/
Status of Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Trade Legislation in the 107th Congress: An Overview
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Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2277/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
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Lumber Imports from Canada: Issues and Events
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2215/
Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2125/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2088/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3547/
Drug Certification Requirements and Congressional Modifications in 2001-2002
This report provides a brief summary of the existing drug certification requirements for drug producing and drug-transit countries, background on the experience, criticisms, and reform efforts under these provisions; a summary of early congressional options and proposals advanced in 2001, with possible advantages and disadvantages; a summary of later initiatives with legislative activity; and (5) a tracking of legislative action on the major initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2556/
Trade Remedy Law Reform in the 107th Congress
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Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: Summary and Analysis of Selected Major Provisions of H.R. 3005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2301/
Trade Promotion Authority (Fast-Track Authority for Trade Agreements): Background and Developments in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2276/
Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3545/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3465/
Trade and the Americas
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3517/
Trade Promotion (Fast-Track) Authority: A Comparison of H.R. 3005 as Approved by the House and by the Senate Finance Committee
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2294/
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3507/
China and the World Trade Organization
China has sought over the past several years to become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the international agency that administers multilateral trade rules. China’s WTO membership (as well as that of Taiwan’s) was formally approved at the WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. On December 11, 2001, China officially became a WTO member. WTO membership will require China to significantly liberalize its trade and investment regimes, which could produce significant new commercial opportunities for U.S. businesses. A main concern for Congress is to ensure that China fully complies with its WTO commitments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3551/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
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A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The negotiating groups completed a draft agreement in January 2001, which was presented at the third Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City on April 20-22, 2001. President Bush expressed strong support for the FTAA and concrete progress has been made in moving it forward. Yet, differences in priorities among the negotiating countries are still evident, suggesting that the FTAA faces many policy hurdles in both the U.S. Congress and the hemisphere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3566/