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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
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NAFTA Labor Side Agreement: Lessons for the Workers Rights and Fast-Track Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1988/
Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1832/
U.S. European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1368/
The Vietnam-U.S. Bilateral Trade Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2003/
Global Capital Market Integration: Implications for U.S. Economic Performance
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Is Globalization the Force Behind Recent Poor U.S. Wage Performance?: An Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1992/
Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare
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U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Investment: Programs and Policy Direction
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Encryption Export Controls
This report discusses encryption export controls, beginning with background on the development and use of encryption, and continuing with a description of export controls imposed under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and the Export Administration Act (EAA); a discussion of recent federal court rulings in First Amendment challenges to AECA and EAA regulations; and a summary of 106th Congress legislation aimed at liberalizing law and policy affecting encryption exports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1830/
The Prescription Drug Import Provisions of the FY2001 Agriculture Appropriations Act, P.L. 106-387
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Telecommunications Services Trade and the WTO Agreement
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The U.S. Trade Deficit in 1999: Recent Trends and Policy Options
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Generalized System of Preferences
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Trade Retaliation: The "Carousel" Approach
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The Andean Trade Preference Act: Background and Issues for Reauthorization
On December 4, 1991, President George Bush signed into law the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) to counter illicit drug production and trade in Latin America. For ten years, it has provided preferential, mostly duty-free, treatment of selected U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The goal of ATPA is to encourage increased exports, thereby promoting development and providing an incentive for Andean farmers and other workers to pursue economic alternatives to the drug trade. This report discusses the ATPA, its background, and issues regarding its potential reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2013/
Agricultural Trade in the 106th Congress: A Review of Issues
The 106th Congress considered a number of trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural commodities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion, to $49.2 billion. Agricultural exports did climb back to $50.9 billion in FY2000, and are now projected at $53 billion in FY2001. However, the pace of recovery concerned many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress. Although they recognize that many world economic, farm production, political, and weather factors influence exports, many of these groups believe that the agricultural sector's future prosperity also depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agricultural exports from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1062/
The European Union's Ban on Hormone-Treated Meat
The European Union (EU) continues to ban imports of meat derived from animals treated with growth hormones despite rulings by World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement panels that the banis inconsistent with the Uruguay Round Agreement on health and safety measures used to restrict imports (the Sanitary and Phytosanitary or SPS Agreement). U.S. retaliation, authorized by the WTO, in the form of 100% duties on $116 million of EU agricultural products remains in effect while negotiations to resolve the dispute continue. Thus far, EU offers of compensation (trade concessions) for lost U.S. meat exports in lieu of lifting the ban have been rejected by the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1258/
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Policy: Key Issues in the 107th Congress
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Economic Sanctions: Legislation in the 106th Congress
This report tracks legislation relating to the use of economic sanctions in pursuit of foreign policy or national security objectives. Separate sections are given to the areas of greatest activity: sanctions imposed against India and Pakistan; exemptions of food and medicine exports; and sanctions reform. A separate table is included listing sanctions measures that were introduced but received no consideration, including measures pertaining to export controls, nonproliferation, drug certifications, and the sanctions regimes leveled, or proposed to be leveled, against Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Serbia and Montenegro, and other countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1256/
The Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) Tax Benefit for Exporting: WTO Issues and an Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1336/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1319/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8299/
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 106th Congress
Agricultural interests have been following trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural products. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion. USDA forecasts agricultural exports at $50.5 billion in FY2000 and $51.5 billion in FY2001. However, the projected agricultural trade surpluses for those years, of $11.5 billion and $12 billion, would be less than half the FY1996 surplus of $27.2 billion. Many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress believe that the sector's future prosperity depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agriculture from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1055/
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity
The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1331/
Normal-Trade-Relations (Most-Favored-Nation) Policy of the United States
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
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Most-Favored-Nation Status of the People's Republic of China
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1334/
The Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) Tax Benefit for Exporting and the WTO
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1339/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Proposals for Renewal and Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1332/
U.S.-Japan Economic Ties: Status and Outlook
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1234/
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1992-1999
This report is prepared annually to provide unclassified quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years. Some general data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world. The data in the report illustrate how global patterns of conventional arms transfers have changed in the post-Cold War and post-Persian Gulf War years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1356/
United States' Withdrawal from the World Trade Organization: Legislative Procedure
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1338/
Most-Favored-Nation (Normal-Trade-Relations) Policy of the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1329/
China's Accession to the World Trade Organization: Legal Issues
The People's Republic of China (PRC) applied to resume membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986 and continues to negotiate its accession to GATT's successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO). A country may join the WTO on terms agreed by the applicant and WTO Members if two-thirds of Members approve the country's accession agreement. A Member may "opt out" of WTO relations with another country by invoking Article XIII of the WTO Agreement, its "non-application" clause. The United States and the PRC agreed to bilateral terms for the PRC's accession in November 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1333/
Aircraft Hushkits: Noise and International Trade
This report discusses aircraft noise regulations as they relate to hushkits, which is a combination of strategies designed to reduce aircraft noise. These strategies can include new technologies, redesigned engine enclosures, replacement engine components, entirely new engines, or a combination of any of the above. This report dicusses the new EU regulation limiting hushkitted commercial jet aircraft in the EU, the United States' response to this regulation, and the effect this could have on international air travel relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1341/
The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States
The World Trade Organization (WTO) went into effect in 1995, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which had been in existence since 1948. Under the WTO, the governments of the 136 member countries agree on a set of rules and principles for trade, negotiate periodically to reduce trade barriers, and participate in the dispute settlement procedure. Economists believe that, over the past 50 years, the more predictable environment for trade as well as the reduction in trade barriers has contributed to unprecedented economic prosperity for the majority of countries. On the other hand, trade liberalization under the WTO has resulted in economic costs to those whose jobs have been adversely affected, although they are relatively few compared to total employment in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1257/
Economic Sanctions and U.S. Agricultural Exports
Various statutes and regulations authorize the President to restrict or prohibit trade with targeted countries for national security or foreign policy reasons. The exercise of these authorities has resulted in restrictions or prohibitions at times being placed on the export of U.S. agricultural commodities and products. The U.S. government currently restricts exports of agricultural products as part of across-the-board economic sanctions imposed on Cuba and Iraq. Exceptions are made for humanitarian reasons, allowing food to be sold or donated to these two countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1255/
Russian Capital Flight, Economic Reforms, and U.S. Interests: An Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1235/
U.S. Latin American Trade: Recent Trends
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1328/
NAFTA: Related Environmental Issues and Initiatives
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Trade Legislation in the 106th Congress: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1335/
Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1337/
Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns
This meeting of the decision making body of the WTO was expected to make decisions that would lead to another round of negotiations on a wide variety of trade rules and related issues. Although the United States continues to assert the necessity of pursuing the twin goals of free trade and environmental protection and to argue that these need not be in conflict, controversy remains over how the multilateral trading system should address the specifics of environmental issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1004/
IMF and World Bank: U.S. Contributions and Agency Budgets
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Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and Its Application to India and Pakistan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1000/
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Seattle Ministerial Conference
On November 30th to December 3rd, 1999, the highest decision-making body of the World Trade Organization (WTO), called the Ministerial Conference, will meet in Seattle to make broad policy decisions. The key issue for the trade ministers attending the meeting will be to decide on the structure and topics for the agenda of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations. Countries have committed to discuss agriculture and services trade in the new round. Other items that have been proposed for inclusion in the new round or for earlier consideration include tariff reductions, concessions for developing countries, labor issues and the environment, and the WTO decision-making process. Major labor, environmental, and consumer interest groups are expected to be present in Seattle to argue for more consideration of workers' rights and the environment within the WTO. This report provides a summary background on preparations for the Ministerial and related issues of congressional interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1002/
Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions. It addresses the following questions: Why do we apply sanctions? What objectives does the U.S. government seek to achieve when it imposes sanctions? Who imposes sanctions? What tools are available? How likely is it that sanctions will achieve the stated goal? What secondary consequences might sanctions have? What change is required for the sanctions to be lifted? Would multilateral sanctions be more desirable and achievable? The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6971/
CBI/NAFTA Parity Proposals: A Comparison
The tariff and quota treatment of U.S. imports from Mexico under the North American Free Trade Agreement has resulted in a distinct and increasing competitive disadvantage for imports from the beneficiary countries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA). To eliminate this disadvantage, proposals have been made to extend to imports from Caribbean Basin countries preferential treatment equivalent to that accorded imports of identical goods from Mexico. This report compares the provisions of four such proposals: Title I of H.R. 984, Title I of S. 371, H.R. 1834, and S. 1389. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1033/
Country Applicability of the U.S. Most-Favored-Nation Status
The United States accords permanent most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to all its trading partners except six countries to which it is denied by law and 14 countries whose MFN status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1032/
Drug Certification of Mexico in 1999: Arguments For and Against Congressional Resolutions of Disapproval
This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions to disapprove President Clinton’s February 26, 1999 certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics.1 These resolutions (H.J.Res. 35--Bachus, and H.J.Res. 43--Mica and Gilman) would disapprove the President’s certification, but would permit him to avoid withholding of assistance to Mexico if he determined that vital national interests required such assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs952/