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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Tobacco Industry in Domestic and World Markets

The U.S. Tobacco Industry in Domestic and World Markets

Date: June 9, 1998
Creator: Knight, Edward; Ayers, Patricia C & Mayer, Gerald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Agriculture and the International Monetary Fund

U.S. Agriculture and the International Monetary Fund

Date: July 6, 1998
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues

U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues

Date: October 21, 1998
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
IMF and World Bank: U.S. Contributions and Agency Budgets

IMF and World Bank: U.S. Contributions and Agency Budgets

Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: This paper shows how much the United States has contributed to these international agencies in recent years. It also shows how much the international agencies budget (and the source of those funds) for their administrative expenses and their operational budgets. This report will be updated periodically.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

Date: August 24, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices.
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Japan: Resale Price Maintenance

Japan: Resale Price Maintenance

Date: March 28, 1991
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: Resale price maintenance occurs when manufacturers control the prices charged by wholesalers or retailers of their products. In Japan, such activities are prohibited, although certain exemptions are allowed. The U.S. concern over the practice is that it could allow Japanese firms to generate a secure profit base in their home market in order to finance aggressive price competition abroad.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japanese Companies and Technology: Lessons to Learn?

Japanese Companies and Technology: Lessons to Learn?

Date: April 15, 1991
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: American companies are facing increased competitive pressures from foreign firms. Many observers feel that U.S. firms lag behind their foreign competitors in the development, application, and marketing of new technologies and techniques. The Japanese industrial enterprise is characterized by a large proportion of private sector financing and many other factors, which this report analyzes at length. The question being debated by Congress is whether or not U.S. government programs and policies are an acceptable and effective means of supporting the efforts of American industries to operate in a manner consistent with success in world markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan-U.S. Trade: The Construction Services Issue

Japan-U.S. Trade: The Construction Services Issue

Date: November 4, 1993
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: This report discusses the issues of the U.S.-Japanese trade relations of the Reagan and Bush Administrations, and the Clinton Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?

Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?

Date: May 5, 1994
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Date: December 3, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: Senate and House committees in October reported legislation for new fast track authority enabling the Administration to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries and to submit them to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-dependent enterprises that support new fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track provides them with inadequate opportunities for dealing with their issues, and that it ultimately will lead to new agreements that benefit foreign more than U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors. Neither bill was taken to the floor in 1997 because of insufficient votes for passage in the House. However, the President is expected to seek approval in 1998.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals

Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals

Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J
Description: This report provides a side-by-side comparison of the reported versions of H.R. 2621 and S. 1269, 105 Congress bills that would provide the President with trade negotiating authority and accord certain resulting agreements and implementing bills expedited -- or “fast-track” -- legislative consideration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals

Fast-Track Trade Negotiating Authority: A Comparison of 105th Congress Legislative Proposals

Date: September 15, 1998
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J
Description: This report provides a side-by-side comparison of H.R. 2621 and S. 2400, as reported, 105th Congress bills that would provide the President with trade negotiating authority and accord certain resulting agreements and implementing bills expedited -- or "fast-track" -- legislative consideration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fast Track for Trade Agreements: Procedural Controls for Congress and Proposed Alternatives

Fast Track for Trade Agreements: Procedural Controls for Congress and Proposed Alternatives

Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Description: This report discusses the fast track trade procedures in the Trade Act of 1974 operate as procedural rules of the House and Senate, and the statute itself declares them to be enacted as an exercise of the constitutional authority of each house to determine its own rules. These procedures prevent Congress from altering an implementing bill or declining to act, but permit it to enact or reject the bill. By these means Congress retains authority to legislate in the areas covered, yet affords the President conditions for effective negotiation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Agreements: Renewing the Negotiating and Fast-Track Implementing Authority

Trade Agreements: Renewing the Negotiating and Fast-Track Implementing Authority

Date: June 30, 1998
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drug Certification of Mexico in 1999: Arguments For and Against Congressional Resolutions of Disapproval

Drug Certification of Mexico in 1999: Arguments For and Against Congressional Resolutions of Disapproval

Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Description: This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions to disapprove President Clinton’s February 26, 1999 certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics.1 These resolutions (H.J.Res. 35--Bachus, and H.J.Res. 43--Mica and Gilman) would disapprove the President’s certification, but would permit him to avoid withholding of assistance to Mexico if he determined that vital national interests required such assistance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NAFTA: A Broad Economic Perspective

NAFTA: A Broad Economic Perspective

Date: November 9, 1993
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Imports: An Overview and Update of Economic and Security Effects

Oil Imports: An Overview and Update of Economic and Security Effects

Date: December 12, 1997
Creator: Moore, John L; Behrens, Carl E & Blodgett, John E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Trade and Development Agency

The Trade and Development Agency

Date: August 5, 1993
Creator: Epstein, Susan B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fair Trade in Financial Services: Legislation and the GATT

Fair Trade in Financial Services: Legislation and the GATT

Date: March 10, 1994
Creator: Jackson, William D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy Interests and Options

Asian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy Interests and Options

Date: April 23, 1998
Creator: Cronin, Richard P
Description: The principal focus of this report is on the foreign policy ramifications of the Asian financial crisis and U.S. options for addressing them. This report tracks and analyzes the efforts of the most seriously affected Asian countries to deal with their economic and financial problems, and their interaction with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United States, and other major sources of financial support and policy advice. It also addresses the implications of the crisis for such U.S. interests as regional stability and the prevention of conflict, trade liberalization, and U.S. regional and global leadership, and discusses the principal factors that could influence the duration and severity of the crisis. A final section considers options for Congress in the context of various criticisms of the IMF’s stabilization programs and the operations of the Fund itself.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commercial Relations with the Soviet Union: Prospects for a Common United States Japanese Policy

Commercial Relations with the Soviet Union: Prospects for a Common United States Japanese Policy

Date: February 25, 1991
Creator: Hardt, John P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan-Taiwan Economic Relations: Implications for the U.S.

Japan-Taiwan Economic Relations: Implications for the U.S.

Date: July 20, 1992
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commercial Relations with Russia: Prospects for a Common United States-Japanese Policy

Commercial Relations with Russia: Prospects for a Common United States-Japanese Policy

Date: July 30, 1992
Creator: Hardt, John P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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