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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), an independent federal government agency, is the official export credit agency of the United States. It helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services, with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers, primarily in circumstances when alternative financing is not available. Ex-Im Bank also may assist U.S. exporters to meet foreign, officially sponsored, export credit competition. Ex-Im Bank's main programs are direct loans, loan guarantees, working capital guarantees, and export credit insurance. Ex-Im Bank transactions are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The Bank operates under a renewable charter, the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, which requires that all of the Bank's financing have a reasonable assurance of repayment and directs the Bank to supplement, and to not compete with, private capital.
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Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program, which provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDC's). A brief comparison of GSP programs worldwide, especially as they compare to the U.S. system, is also presented. Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders is presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.
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Dispute Settlement in the Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

Dispute Settlement in the Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

Date: April 20, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: The proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)1 follows current U.S. free trade agreement (FTA) practice in containing two types of dispute settlement: (1) State-State, applicable to disputes between the Parties to the KORUS FTA, and (2) investor-State, applicable to claims by an investor of one Party against the other Party for breach of a KORUS FTA investment obligation.
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Peru in Brief: Political and Economic Conditions and Relations with the United States

Peru in Brief: Political and Economic Conditions and Relations with the United States

Date: April 10, 2012
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Description: This report provides an overview of Peru's government and economy and a discussion of issues in relations between the United States and Peru.
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U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah; Hanrahan, Charles E. & Villarreal, M. A.
Description: This report provides an overview of the federal government agencies that participate in U.S. export promotion efforts and the issues that they raise for Congress. The recent global economic downturn has renewed congressional debate over the role of the federal government in promoting exports. This debate has been heightened with the Obama Administration's introduction of the National Export Initiative (NEI) in the 2010 State of the Union Address.
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U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane & Williams, Brock R.
Description: Report that provides a general perspective on the U.S. Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) system. The first section discusses free trade zones worldwide. The second section focuses on the U.S. FTZ program --its history, administrative mechanism, structure, growth and industry concentration, and benefits and costs. The third section focuses on current issues for Congress relating to the U.S. FTZ program.
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The World Trade Organization: The Non- Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) Negotiations

The World Trade Organization: The Non- Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) Negotiations

Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report looks at the evolution of the Doha Round World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, possible effects of the Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) agreement, and major negotiating issues from a U.S. standpoint. NAMA refers to the cutting of tariff and non-tariff barriers (NTB) on industrial and primary products, basically all trade in goods which are not foodstuffs.
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WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses the details of fourteen World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes in which rulings have not yet been implemented or in which the United States has acted and the dispute has not been fully resolved. The cases include disputes regarding trade remedies, antidumping, aircraft subsidies, cotton subsidies, online gambling restrictions, music copyright law, and trademark infringement.
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WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: Although the United States has complied with adverse rulings in many past World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes, there are currently 14 cases in which rulings have not yet been implemented or the United States has acted and the dispute has not been fully resolved. Nine unresolved cases involve trade remedies. The report discusses all fourteen cases in detail, which include antidumping, aircraft subsidies, cotton subsidies, online gambling restrictions, music copyright law, and trademark infringement.
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Cargo Preferences for U.S.-Flag Shipping

Cargo Preferences for U.S.-Flag Shipping

Date: October 29, 2015
Creator: Frittelli, John
Description: This report explains the motivation behind cargo preference law, discusses issues concerning the cost-effectiveness of the program, and reviews attempts to apply cargo preference to the nation's oil trade. The report also identifies several disparate bills reflecting wide disagreement on the future direction of cargo preference policy.
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Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: Low farm milk prices and declining dairy sector income in 2009 have renewed congressional interest in imposing new import barriers on milk protein concentrates (MPCs), which generally include casein, the main protein found in milk, and caseinates, a soluble form of casein. This report examines proposed import restrictions and potential trade policy implications.
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The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Automobile Rules of Origin

The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Automobile Rules of Origin

Date: June 15, 2011
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Platzer, Michaela D.
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the complex supply chains that now underlie automotive production. It then explains the procedures established in the KORUS FTA for determining whether an automotive product qualifies as being of South Korean or United States origin and compares those procedures to the rules established in the free trade agreement between South Korea and the European Union. Finally, it discusses whether the domestic content rules in the KORUS FTA could enable circumvention of the rules of origin by allowing automotive components produced in North Korea’s Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) to enter the United States duty-free in assembled motor vehicles, and thereby receive the benefits provided by the agreement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations

U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations

Date: April 6, 2016
Creator: Brown, Phillip
Description: This report discusses the export of crude oil produced in the United States and policy considerations in the wake of a provision contained in P.L. 114-113 which repealed a 40-year prohibition on the export.
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Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace Lending

Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace Lending

Date: May 20, 2016
Creator: Murphy, Edward V.
Description: This report briefly discusses the context and contents of a white paper issued on May 10, 2016 by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The paper analyzes regulatory issues for the marketplace lending industry and offers several recommendations for industry and government responses.
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Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview

Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) and the two types of formal dispute settlement it contains: 1) State-State and 2) investor-State. The report also discusses how the PTPA differs from earlier U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs).
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Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview

Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview

Date: May 18, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) and the two types of formal dispute settlement it contains: 1) State-State and 2) investor-State. The report also discusses how the PTPA differs from earlier U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arab League Boycott of Israel

Arab League Boycott of Israel

Date: December 19, 2013
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report briefly discusses the Arab League's boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since Israel's founding in 1948, as well as U.S. efforts to end the boycott and prevent U.S. firms in participating in the boycott.
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Generalized System of Preferences: Agricultural Imports

Generalized System of Preferences: Agricultural Imports

Date: January 10, 2014
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which provides duty-free tariff treatment for certain products from designated developing countries. Opinion within the U.S. agriculture industry is mixed, reflecting both support for and opposition to the current program. The 111th Congress did not extend the GSP in 2010, and it was set to expire December 31, 2010, which will likely become a legislative issue in the 112th Congress.
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U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Date: December 20, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad.
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Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Date: March 24, 2014
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad.
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U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: July 13, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department