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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

Date: April 30, 2012
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Tang, Rachel
Description: Over the past few years, the Chinese government has implemented a number of policies to tighten its control over the production and export of "rare earths"-a unique group of 17 metal elements on the periodic table that exhibit a range of special properties, such as magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are important to a number of high technology industries, including renewable energy and various defense systems. This report examines the economic and trade implications of China's rare earth policies for the United States.
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The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Date: April 12, 2012
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: The G-20 is an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies among major advanced and emerging economies. Congress may want to exercise oversight over the Administration's participation in the G-20 process, including the policy commitments that Administration is making in the G-20 and the policies it is encouraging other G-20 countries to pursue.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: September 26, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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U.S. Defense Articles and Services Supplied to Foreign Recipients: Restrictions on Their Use

U.S. Defense Articles and Services Supplied to Foreign Recipients: Restrictions on Their Use

Date: March 6, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: In accordance with United States law, the U.S. Government places conditions on the use of defense articles and defense services transferred by it to foreign recipients. Violation of these conditions can lead to the suspension of deliveries or termination of the contracts for such defense items, among other things. This report covers the details and meanings of these reports.
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Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options

Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options

Date: November 14, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.; Hornbeck, J. F. & Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: Report discussing programs designed to foster growth in less developed countries, the major U. S. trade preference programs, their possible economic effects, stakeholder interests, and legislative options.
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

Date: October 4, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report describes the open economy and society of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as U.S. concern over proliferation of advanced technology due to the open economy and the UAE's lax export controls. It discusses these issues in relation to a recently-signed U.S.-UAE civilian nuclear agreement and also provides a general description of the UAE's government and political structure, as well as the effects of the recent global economic downturn on the UAE in general and on the city of Dubai in particular.
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

Date: July 17, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report describes the open economy and society of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as U.S. concern over proliferation of advanced technology due to said open economy and the UAE's lax export controls. It discusses these issues in relation to a recently-signed U.S.-UAE civilian nuclear agreement and also provides a general description of the UAE's government and political structure, as well as the effects of the recent global economic downturn on the UAE in general and on the city of Dubai in particular.
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Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The impact of foreign direct investment on U.S. employment is provoking a national debate regarding U.S. job creation versus outsourcing. Many economists argue that there is little evidence to support the notion that the overseas investment activities of U.S. multinational companies play a significant role in the rate at which jobs are created in the U.S. economy. They argue that the source of job creation in the economy is rooted in the combination of macroeconomic policies the nation has chosen, the rate of productivity growth, and the availability of resources. This report addresses these issues by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
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Burma’s Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Burma’s Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report discusses the current issues in Burma (Myanmar) in regards to political prisoners and the resulting U.S. sanctions against the nation. It includes an introduction and definitions; information about current estimates of prisoners and prisoner releases; the relation of political prisoners, parliamentary elections and national reconciliation; and U.S. sanctions and U.S. efforts regarding political prisoners, as well as relevant issues for Congress to consider.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: December 7, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and, in so doing, provides examples, based on a wide range of open source reporting, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
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China-U.S. Trade Issues

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Date: May 21, 2012
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report discusses the U.S.-China economic relationship and China's rapid expansion as a global economic market, both with respect to the current global economic crisis. It also examines major U.S.-China trade issues and related legislation.
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EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

Date: May 30, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report provides background information and analysis of the U.S.-EU economic relationship for members of the 112th Congress as they contemplate the costs and benefits of closer U.S. economic ties with the EU. It examines the economic and political framework of the relationship and the scope and magnitude of the ties based on data from various sources. In addition, the report analyzes the implications these factors have for U.S. economic policy toward the EU.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: January 26, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report gives an overview of the U.S. sanctions in place on Iran and legislation that would enhance both the economic sanctions and human rights-related provisions of CISADA and other laws. It also discusses the measures that the United Nations and others have enacted against Iran and the effects of the sanctions.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: February 10, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. That approach was not initially altered because of the Iranian dispute over its June 12, 2009, elections. However, with subsequent negotiations yielding no firm Iranian agreement to compromise, since early 2010 the Administration has focused on achieving the imposition of additional U.N., U.S., and allied country sanctions whose cumulative effect would be to compel it to accept a nuclear bargain.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: March 6, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue. That approach was not initially altered because of the Iranian dispute over its June 12, 2009, elections. However, with subsequent negotiations yielding no firm Iranian agreement to compromise, since early 2010 the Administration has focused on achieving the imposition of additional U.N., U.S., and allied country sanctions whose cumulative effect would be to compel it to accept a nuclear bargain.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: April 26, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The objective of sanctions may be on its way to achievement but has not been accomplished to date. U.S. officials believe that these sanctions caused Iran to return to the nuclear bargaining table in April 2012 with greater seriousness and intent toward peaceful resolution. Despite the imposition of what many now consider to be "crippling" sanctions, some in Congress believe that economic and diplomatic pressure on Iran needs to increase further and faster. In the 112th Congress, legislation would enhance both the economic sanctions and human rights-related provisions of a previous Iran sanctions laws However, movement on new sanctions might be on hold pending the outcome of a second round of nuclear talks slated for May 23 in Baghdad.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: March 28, 2012
Creator: Kenneth Katzman
Description: The objective of sanctions-to compel Iran to verifiably demonstrate that its nuclear program is for purely peaceful uses-has not been achieved to date. The international coalition that is imposing progressively strict economic sanctions on Iran is broadening and deepening, with increasingly significant effect on Iran's economy. U.S. officials believe that these sanctions might yet cause Iran to return to the nuclear bargaining table with greater seriousness and intent toward peaceful resolution. The report discusses the effect of these sanctions as well as the pros and cons of increasing sanction.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: October 15, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: September 13, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: July 16, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report looks at the purposes and results of U.S. sanctions on Iran, which were initiated as a result of Iran's nuclear program and human rights issues. It ends by discussing future issues that Congress can consider regarding the sanctions.
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Iran Sanctions

Iran Sanctions

Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report looks at the purposes and results of U.S. sanctions on Iran, which were initiated as a result of Iran's nuclear program and human rights issues. It ends by discussing future issues that Congress can consider regarding the sanctions.
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Mexico's Free Trade Agreements

Mexico's Free Trade Agreements

Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: In the 112th Congress, issues of concern related to the trade and economic relationship with Mexico have involved mostly economic conditions in Mexico, issues related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the effect of NAFTA, and Mexican migration to the United States. This report provides an overview of Mexico's free trade agreements, its motivations for trade liberalization and entering into free trade agreements, and some of the issues Mexico faces in addressing its economic challenges.
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Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Date: February 13, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: The installation of the Union Government in 2011 and the undertaking of initial reforms have raised the prospects for the resumption of a democratically elected civilian government in Burma after five decades of military rule. The release of Burma's political prisoners has a central role in U.S. policy and Burma's political future. Many of the U.S. sanctions on Burma were implemented after Burma's ruling military junta suppressed protests and detained many political prisoners. In addition, the removal of many of the existing U.S. sanctions requires the release of all political prisoners in Burma.
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Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: The installation of the Union Government in 2011 and the undertaking of initial reforms have raised the prospects for the resumption of a democratically elected civilian government in Burma after five decades of military rule. The release of Burma's political prisoners has a central role in U.S. policy and Burma's political future. Many of the U.S. sanctions on Burma were implemented after Burma's ruling military junta suppressed protests and detained many political prisoners. In addition, the removal of many of the existing U.S. sanctions requires the release of all political prisoners in Burma.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department