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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress

International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress

Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F. & Irace, Mary A.
Description: This report discusses a variety of issues faced by the 113th Congress. Topics include trade negotiations with China, export controls and sanctions, import policies, intellectual property rights, international investments and international financial institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jurenas, Remy & Williams, Brock R.
Description: This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents.
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than Treaties

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than Treaties

Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Smith, Jane M.; Shedd, Daniel T. & Murrill, Brandon J.
Description: This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications

Japan's Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications

Date: April 8, 2013
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the effects of the possible entry of Japan to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations. The TPP issue presents both risks and opportunities for the United States and Japan. On the one hand, it could reinvigorate an economic relationship that has remained steady but stagnant, by forcing the two countries to address long-standing, difficult issues, and allowing them to raise their relationship to a higher level. On the other hand, failure to do so could indicate that the underlying problems are too fundamental to overcome and could set back the relationship.
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U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes

U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes

Date: April 8, 2013
Creator: Ratner, Michael; Parfomak, Paul W.; Fergusson, Ian F. & Luther, Linda
Description: This report examines what has changed in the U.S. natural gas market and the prospects and implications of the United States becoming a significant net natural gas exporter.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security

Date: April 3, 2013
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Rosenblum, Marc R.
Description: This report describes and analyzes U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP) role in the U.S. import process. (The report does not cover CBP's role in the U.S. export control system.)
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EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude

Date: April 2, 2013
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report provides background information and analysis of the U.S.-EU economic relationship for Members of the 113th Congress as they contemplate the costs and benefits of closer U.S. economic ties with the EU. It examines the economic and political framework of the relationship and the scope and magnitude of the ties based on data from various sources. In addition, the report analyzes the implications these factors have for U.S. economic policy toward the EU.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: March 29, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Date: March 29, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report covers the recent background of the Exon-Florio provision with special regards to issues faced in the 112th Congress. The Exon-Florio provision grants the President the authority to block proposed or pending foreign acquisitions of "persons engaged in interstate commerce in the United States" that threaten to impair the national security.
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: March 28, 2013
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security

Date: March 22, 2013
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Rosenblum, Marc R.
Description: This report describes and analyzes U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP) role in the U.S. import process. (The report does not cover CBP's role in the U.S. export control system.)
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Date: March 19, 2013
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jurenas, Remy & Williams, Brock R.
Description: This report examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publically available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

Date: March 19, 2013
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: This report provides an overview of U.S.-Mexico economic relations, trade trends, the Mexican economy, NAFTA, and trade issues between the United States and Mexico.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy

Date: March 18, 2013
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report describes the open economy and society of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as well as U.S. concern over proliferation of advanced technology due to the open economy and the UAE's lax export controls. It discusses these issues in relation to a recently-signed U.S.-UAE civilian nuclear agreement. It also provides a general description of the UAE's government and political structure, as well as the effects of the recent global economic downturn on the UAE in general and on the city of Dubai in particular.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Date: March 14, 2013
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan (calling itself Republic of China (ROC)), including policy issues for Congress and legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade and Investment in the Middle East and North Africa: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Trade and Investment in the Middle East and North Africa: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: March 4, 2013
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Bolle, Mary Jane & Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides background and analysis for policymakers considering re-evaluating U.S. trade and investment in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in light of recent political developments. In particular, the report examines the economic challenges facing many countries in the region and the area's limited integration in the world economy, including relatively weak economic ties with the United States. It also analyzes various policy options for increasing trade and investment with MENA countries. The report concludes by discussing: 1) the premise of the policy agenda, specifically whether increased trade and investment can support or lead to successful democratic transitions and political stability; and 2) if such a policy agenda is pursued, possible implementation questions that policymakers in Congress and the Administration may face.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Description: This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law and agreements play in the United States. International law is derived from two primary sources — international agreements and customary practice.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade and Investment in the Middle East and North Africa: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Trade and Investment in the Middle East and North Africa: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: February 28, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Bolle, Mary Jane & Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias
Description: U.S. interest in deepening economic ties with certain countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has increased in light of the political unrest and transitions that have swept the region since early 2011. This report analyzes policy approaches that the Congress might consider concerning U.S.-MENA trade and investment.
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NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects

NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects

Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: Villarreal, M. A. & Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Smith, Jane M.
Description: This report discusses the application of antidumping and countervailing duty law to the goods of nonmarket economy (NME) countries, including the decision of the Department of Commerce (DOC) in 2007 to change its long-standing policy and apply CVD law to such goods; reviews China's successful case in the World Trade Organization challenging the U.S. application of CVDs to Chinese products and the status of U.S. compliance efforts in the case; examines the December 2011 decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in GPX Int'l Tire Corp. v. United States holding that the U.S. CVD law does not authorize DOC to apply CVDs to NME country goods; summarizes the subsequently enacted P.L. 112-99, signed March 13, 2012, a statute authorizing DOC to apply CVDs to such products; and notes recent developments in the GPX litigation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Date: January 29, 2013
Creator: Williams, Brock R.
Description: This report focuses primarily on U.S. economic interests in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement. It provides a comparative economic analysis of the countries currently negotiating the TPP and describes the U.S. trade flows with these countries at the bilateral level and in relation to the countries' economic linkages with the rest of the world. It also provides information on the existing trade agreements of TPP countries. As such, this report aims to serve as an introduction to the economic relationship these countries have, both individually and collectively, with the United States.
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Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Date: January 28, 2013
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discuses the stealing a trade secret, which is a federal crime when the information relates to a product in interstate or foreign commerce, 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets), or when the intended beneficiary is a foreign power, 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department