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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress

Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress

Date: December 16, 2004
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Sek, Lenore M.
Description: This report discusses trade issues in the 109th Congress. For over 50 years, U.S. trade officials have negotiated multilateral trade agreements to achieve lower trade barriers and rules to cover international trade. During the 108th Congress, U.S. officials negotiated and Congress approved four bilateral free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Morocco, and Singapore.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NAFTA at Ten: Lessons from Recent Studies

NAFTA at Ten: Lessons from Recent Studies

Date: February 13, 2004
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: This report provides an analytical summary of the economic lessons reached in support of Congress's role in the trade policy process. On January 1, 2004, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) completed its tenth year and most of its provisions are now implemented. NAFTA is a free trade agreement (FTA) that effectively added Mexico to the U.S.-Canada FTA completed in 1989. Its anniversary has sparked numerous evaluations, which are particularly relevant as the United States pursues free trade agreements with multiple Latin American countries. Most studies found that NAFTA's effects on the U.S. and Mexican economies to be modest at most.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Patents and Drug Importation

Patents and Drug Importation

Date: May 25, 2004
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Description: This report explores the intellectual property laws and policies concerning the parallel importation of patented pharmaceuticals into the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Description: The impact of taxes on international trade and foreign investment has had a place in tax policy debates for decades, although its prominence has waxed and waned. The debate has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment ; questions arise during such times over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. In recent months, the debate over international taxation again became prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current tax system likely affects outsourcing, and whether alternative tax policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable. This report applies economic analysis to both questions.
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U.S.- Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations

U.S.- Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations

Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J. & Morrison, Wayne M.
Description: This report examines Thailand’s economy and trade orientation, the scope and significance of the U.S.-Thai commercial relationship, and the likely top issues in the negotiations. The report concludes with a short summary of the Congressional role and interest in the FTA.
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Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Date: August 23, 2004
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
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Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Date: June 16, 2004
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
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Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Date: July 29, 2004
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: In approving the FY2001 agriculture appropriations act, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to Cuba (as enacted in by the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000, or TSRA). Congressional opponents of TSRA's prohibitions on private U.S. financing of agricultural sales, public financing of eligible exports, and tourist travel to Cuba have introduced bills since 2000 to repeal these provisions. Though several amendments to repeal or relax TSRA provisions relative to Cuba were adopted by committees or passed during floor debate, all were dropped in conference action. Administration officials continually signal to conferees they will advise the President to veto any bill that would change TSRA's prohibitions against Cuba.
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Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Date: September 16, 2004
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products.
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MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

Date: January 2, 2004
Creator: McCarthy, James E & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Upper Mississippi River - Illinois Waterway Navigation Expansion: An Agricultural Transportation and Environmental Context

Upper Mississippi River - Illinois Waterway Navigation Expansion: An Agricultural Transportation and Environmental Context

Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Upper Mississippi River - Illinois Waterway Navigation Expansion: An Agricultural Transportation and Environmental Context

Upper Mississippi River - Illinois Waterway Navigation Expansion: An Agricultural Transportation and Environmental Context

Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The African Cotton Initiative and WTO Agriculture Negotiations

The African Cotton Initiative and WTO Agriculture Negotiations

Date: January 16, 2004
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report discusses the African cotton initiative, over which disagreement has blocked progress on an agreement on agriculture in the current round of multilateral trade negotiations known as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). In World Trade Organization (WTO) Negotiations on agriculture, a group of African countries have proposed that all subsidies for cotton be eliminated by the end of four years. The proposal also advocates compensating African cotton producing countries for revenues estimated to be lost due to cotton subsidies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cotton Production and Support in the United States

Cotton Production and Support in the United States

Date: June 24, 2004
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: This report explains the various cotton subsidy programs and provides quantitative data on market revenues, production costs, and the size of the subsidies. Also, it characterizes the relative position of the United States vis-a-vis other countries as a producer, exporter and importer of cotton. The purpose of this examination is to provide U.S. policy makers with a complete overview of U.S. cotton production and the federal programs that support that production.
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U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges

U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges

Date: December 23, 2004
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J
Description: None
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Free Trade Agreements and the WTO Exceptions

Free Trade Agreements and the WTO Exceptions

Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J. & Tatelman, Todd B.
Description: World Trade Organization (WTO) Members must grant immediate and unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to the products of other Members with respect to tariffs and other trade matters. Free trade agreements (FTA) are facially inconsistent with this obligation because they grant countries who are party to the agreement the ability to receive more favorable trade benefits than those extended to other trading partners. Due to the prevailing view that such arrangements are trade enhancing, Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) contains a specific exception for FTAs. The growing number of regional trade agreements, however, has made it difficult for the WTO to efficiently monitor the consistency of FTAs with the provided exemption. This report examines this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

Date: August 23, 2004
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China-U.S. Trade Issues

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR.
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U.S. Terms of Trade: Significance, Trends, and Policy

U.S. Terms of Trade: Significance, Trends, and Policy

Date: September 15, 2004
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxes, Exports and Investment: ETI/FSC and Domestic Investment Proposals in the 108th Congress

Taxes, Exports and Investment: ETI/FSC and Domestic Investment Proposals in the 108th Congress

Date: November 5, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 109th Congress

Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Vaughn, Bruce & Veillette, Connie
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: the Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: the Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border

Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Kirk, Robert S & Frittelli, Robert S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts

U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts

Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Nanto, Dick K & Lum, Thomas
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts

U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts

Date: August 18, 2004
Creator: Nanto, Dick K & Lum, Thomas
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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