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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: March 28, 2013
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO).
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U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview

Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Smith, Jane M.
Description: This report discusses the application of antidumping and countervailing duty law to the goods of nonmarket economy (NME) countries, including the decision of the Department of Commerce (DOC) in 2007 to change its long-standing policy and apply CVD law to such goods; reviews China's successful case in the World Trade Organization challenging the U.S. application of CVDs to Chinese products and the status of U.S. compliance efforts in the case; examines the December 2011 decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in GPX Int'l Tire Corp. v. United States holding that the U.S. CVD law does not authorize DOC to apply CVDs to NME country goods; summarizes the subsequently enacted P.L. 112-99, signed March 13, 2012, a statute authorizing DOC to apply CVDs to such products; and notes recent developments in the GPX litigation.
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Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support

Date: September 18, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. The report discusses a key question that policy makers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO? The answer depends not only on cost, but also on the proposal's design and objectives, as described below.
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The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the Export Administration Act (EAA) in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business.
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U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Donnelly, J. Michael
Description: The U.S. trade deficit was shrinking through June 2009 because of the global financial crisis but has begun to increase again. The crisis caused U.S. imports to drop faster than U.S. exports. The global simultaneous recession, however, implies that exporting countries cannot rely on increased foreign demand to make up for slack demand at home. Even though U.S. imports are down considerably from 2008, companies competing with imports still face diminishing demand as the domestic economy has been hit by recession. This report provides an overview of the international trade climate and U.S. trade policy. The report also discusses common perceptions about the deficit and trade balances.
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Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries.
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U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) Proposal

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) Proposal

Date: January 20, 2010
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report provides an introduction to U.S. Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ). The report discusses the details of the Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) proposal, the potential winners and losers under the TAP proposal, economic studies on the TAP proposal, and policy analysis on the TAP proposal.
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What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: The size of the U.S. bilateral trade deficit with China has been and continues to be an important issue in bilateral trade relations. Some Members of Congress view the deficit as a sign of unfair economic policies in China, and have introduced legislation seeking to redress the perceived competitive disadvantage China's policies have created for U.S. exporters. This paper examines the differences in the trade data from the two nations.
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Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills

Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills

Date: October 20, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report discusses the current process by which duty suspension bills and other provisions are introduced, reviewed by several government agencies and committee staff, made available for public comment, and finally included in omnibus miscellaneous trade and technical corrections bills (MTBs) legislation reported out by the committees of jurisdiction.
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Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes.
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