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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support

Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on Domestic Support

Date: September 18, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments most relevant for U.S. domestic farm policy. The report discusses a key question that policy makers ask of virtually every new farm proposal is, how will it affect U.S. commitments under the WTO? The answer depends not only on cost, but also on the proposal's design and objectives, as described below.
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The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Description: This report discusses the Export Administration Act (EAA) in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business.
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U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Donnelly, J. Michael
Description: The U.S. trade deficit was shrinking through June 2009 because of the global financial crisis but has begun to increase again. The crisis caused U.S. imports to drop faster than U.S. exports. The global simultaneous recession, however, implies that exporting countries cannot rely on increased foreign demand to make up for slack demand at home. Even though U.S. imports are down considerably from 2008, companies competing with imports still face diminishing demand as the domestic economy has been hit by recession. This report provides an overview of the international trade climate and U.S. trade policy. The report also discusses common perceptions about the deficit and trade balances.
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Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills

Tariff Modifications: Miscellaneous Tariff Bills

Date: October 20, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report discusses the current process by which duty suspension bills and other provisions are introduced, reviewed by several government agencies and committee staff, made available for public comment, and finally included in omnibus miscellaneous trade and technical corrections bills (MTBs) legislation reported out by the committees of jurisdiction.
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Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes.
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: Granting Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status requires a change in law because Russia is prohibited from receiving unconditional and permanent NTR under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. This provision includes the so-called Jackson-Vanik amendment. Extension of PNTR has implications for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This report examines this legislative issue in the context of Russian accession to the WTO and U.S.-Russian economic ties.
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Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes. Also discussed are pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes.
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Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives

Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives

Date: December 17, 2010
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the current U.S. system for taxing international businesses. The report begins with an overview of current law and of possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues.
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Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

Date: August 19, 2011
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: As global economic competition heightens, many firms and workers face difficult adjustment problems. Congress has responded to these adjustment costs by authorizing four trade adjustment assistance (TAA) programs to assist trade-impacted workers, firms, farmers, and communities. This report discusses the TAA program for firms (TAAF). The TAAF program provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies and make other adjustments to remain competitive in the changing international economy.
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The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Date: February 16, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: The 112th Congress may consider reforms of the U.S. export control system. The balance between national security and export competitiveness has made the subject of export controls controversial for decades. Through the Export Administration Act (EAA), the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), and other authorities, the United States restricts the export of defense items or munitions; so-called “dual-use” goods and technology—items with both civilian and military applications; certain nuclear materials and technology; and items that would assist in the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons or the missile technology used to deliver them. U.S. export controls are also used to restrict exports to certain countries on which the United States imposes economic sanctions. At present, the EAA has expired and dual-use controls are maintained under IEEPA authorities.
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