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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: May 14, 2009
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Transition to Digital Television: Is America Ready?

The Transition to Digital Television: Is America Ready?

Date: May 14, 2009
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report discusses the background and potential effects of the DTV Delay Act, which directs that all over-the-air full-power television broadcasts will become digital only.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nations' response to societal challenges, and the education of Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. This report describes the science and engineering community, policymakers' interest in that community and its various endeavors, and the organizations that provide science and technology policy advice to agencies of the federal government and/or Members of Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses the role of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), including an overview of the history of science and technology advice to the President, issues and options for Congress regarding (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The report also discusses actions taken by the Obama Administration regarding OSTP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Geospatial Information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Current Issues and Future Challenges

Geospatial Information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Current Issues and Future Challenges

Date: June 8, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: This report provides a primer on geospatial data and GIS and provides several examples of their use. The report discusses issues that may be of interest to Congress: sharing, coordination, and management of geospatial information, including examples of legislation. Finally, recommendations are included from several organizations for how to improve the coordination and management of geospatial information at the federal and state levels.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: June 15, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions, e.g., the National Science Foundation (NSF); the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the America COMPETES Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

Date: June 22, 2009
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Description: The Directorate of Science and Technology is the primary organization for research and development (R&D) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The directorate is headed by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology. In the past, some Members of Congress and other observers have been highly critical of the directorate's performance. Although management changes have somewhat muted this criticism in recent years, fundamental issues remain, which this report discusses in detail. Congressional policymakers are widely expected to consider reauthorization legislation for DHS during the 111th Congress. Such legislation would likely include provisions that would affect the Science and Technology Directorate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

America COMPETES Act and the FY2010 Budget

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses in detail the America COMPETES Act, which is intended to increase the nation's investment in research and development (R&D), and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This report discusses the funding increases authorized by the act for various relevant institutions, e.g., the National Science Foundation (NSF); the act's education activities intended to enhance the skills of STEM educators; and if Congress will continue to similarly fund the America COMPETES Act in the FY2010 budget.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federally-Funded Innovation Inducement Prizes

Federally-Funded Innovation Inducement Prizes

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses the status of current federally-funded innovation inducement prizes, addresses the different types of prizes, analyzes when prizes may be appropriate and effective, and summarizes assessments that have been made of their effectiveness. The report also provides the lessons that may be learned from completed competitions, and policy options for those Members of Congress interested in taking action regarding federally-funded innovation inducement prizes. The report concludes with an overview of 111th congressional activities regarding prizes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview

Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), which is a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies use knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current U.S. international science and technology (S&T) policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance other country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Technology Innovation Program

The Technology Innovation Program

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: The Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was established in 2007 to replace the Advanced Technology Program (ATP). This effort is designed " ... to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through highrisk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations. The elimination of ATP and the creation of TIP have renewed the debate over the role of the federal government in promoting commercial technology development. This report discusses the opposing sides of this ongoing debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D. & Matthews, Christine M.
Description: In the 21st century, global competition and rapid advances in science and technology will challenge the scientific and technical proficiency of the U.S. workforce. This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Google Library Project: Is Digitization for Purposes of Online Indexing Fair Use Under Copyright Law?

The Google Library Project: Is Digitization for Purposes of Online Indexing Fair Use Under Copyright Law?

Date: July 6, 2009
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Description: The Google Book Search Library Project, announced in December 2004, raised important questions about infringing reproduction and fair use under copyright law. Google planned to digitize, index, and display "snippets" of print books in the collections of five major libraries without the permission of the books' copyright holders, if any. Google's proposed reproduction and display of copyrighted books was not authorized by the rights holders, who alleged that the Google Library Project infringed their copyrights. This report provides background on the Library Project, legal issues raised by digitization and indexing projects, and the proposed settlement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Kirchoff, Suzanne M.
Description: This report analyzes China's mixed record on human rights: major human rights problems, new human rights legislation, and the development of civil society, legal awareness, and social and political activism. This report discusses major areas of interest but does not provide an exhaustive account of all human rights abuses or related incidents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Kirchoff, Suzanne M.
Description: This report analyzes the current crises that the U.S. newspaper industry is facing in light of the recent economic downturn and the increasing number of readers who turn to the Internet for their news instead of to traditional media. Congress has begun debating whether the financial problems in the newspaper industry pose a public policy issue that warrants federal action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spectrum Policy in the Age of Broadband: Issues for Congress

Spectrum Policy in the Age of Broadband: Issues for Congress

Date: July 13, 2009
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: The convergence of wireless telecommunications technology and Internet protocols is fostering new generations of mobile technologies. This transformation has created new demands for advanced communications infrastructure and radio frequency spectrum capacity that can support high-speed, content-rich uses. This report considers the possibility of modifying spectrum policy: (1) to support national goals for broadband deployment by placing more emphasis on attracting new providers of wireless broadband services; and (2) to accommodate the wireless broadband needs of industries that are considered by many to be the economic drivers of the future, not only communications, but also areas such as energy, health care, transportation, and education.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Searches of Laptop Computers and Other Electronic Storage Devices

Border Searches of Laptop Computers and Other Electronic Storage Devices

Date: July 28, 2009
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report discusses a developing issue in the law of search and seizure: whether the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution permits warrantless searches of the content of laptop computers and other electronic storage devices at U.S. borders. The federal courts that have addressed this issue have held that the border search exception to the Fourth Amendment applies to these searches, making warrantless searches permissible.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

Date: July 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D. & Matthews, Christine M.
Description: This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electric Power Storage

Electric Power Storage

Date: September 8, 2009
Creator: Kaplan, Stan M.
Description: This report summarizes the technical, regulatory, and policy issues that surround implementation of electric power storage.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spectrum Policy in the Age of Broadband: Issues for Congress

Spectrum Policy in the Age of Broadband: Issues for Congress

Date: September 22, 2009
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report considers the possibility of modifying spectrum policy: (1) to support national goals for broadband deployment by placing more emphasis on attracting new providers of wireless broadband services; and (2) to accommodate the wireless broadband needs of industries that are considered by many to be the economic drivers of the future, not only communications, but also areas such as energy, health care, transportation, and education.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress

Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress

Date: September 30, 2009
Creator: Theohary, Catherine A. & Rollins, John
Description: This report identifies cybersecurity policy issues that have been proposed for priority consideration. The report lists and synopsizes current legislation that has been developed to address various aspects of the cybersecurity problem. It then lists the current status of the legislation and compares legislation with existing executive branch initiatives. Finally, analysis of information contained in executive branch initiatives and congressional legislation is used to further highlight related considerations for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department