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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462442/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources
This report provides links to selected authoritative resources related to cybersecurity issues. This report includes information on Legislation, Executive Orders and Presidential Directives, Data and Statistics, Cybersecurity Glossaries", Reports by Topic, Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports, White House/Office of Management and Budget reports, Military/DOD, Cloud Computing, Critical Infrastructure, National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC), Cybercrime/Cyberwar, International, Education/Training/Workforce, and Research and Development (R&D) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463359/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources
This report provides links to selected authoritative resources related to cybersecurity issues. This report includes information on Legislation, Executive Orders and Presidential Directives, Data and Statistics, Cybersecurity Glossaries", Reports by Topic, Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports, White House/Office of Management and Budget reports, Military/DOD, Cloud Computing, Critical Infrastructure, National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC), Cybercrime/Cyberwar, International, Education/Training/Workforce, and Research and Development (R&D) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462922/
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report discusses significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463510/
Technology Transfer And National Security Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9232/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9432/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9433/
R&D Partnerships: Government-Industry Collaboration
Efforts by the 104th Congress to eliminate several government-industry-university research and development partnership programs reflected some opposition to federally funded programs designed to facilitate the commercialization of technology. Within the context of the budget decisions, the 106th Congress is expected to again debate the government's role in promoting collaborative ventures focused on generating new products and processes for the marketplace. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26094/
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs800/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9227/
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6968/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272106/
The Stuxnet Computer Worm: Harbinger of an Emerging Warfare Capability
In September 2010, media reports emerged about a new form of cyber attack that appeared to target Iran, although the actual target, if any, is unknown. This report discusses this cyber attack, a malicious software program known as Stuxnet, which infected computer systems that were used to control the functioning of a nuclear power plant. Once inside the system, Stuxnet had the ability to degrade or destroy the software on which it operated. Although early reports focused on the impact on facilities in Iran, researchers discovered that the program had spread throughout multiple countries worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31393/
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress
The Anti-Spyware Coalition (ASC) defines spyware as "technologies deployed without appropriate user consent and/or implemented in ways that impair user control over (1) material changes that affect their user experience, privacy, or system security; (2) use of their system resources, including what programs are installed on their computers; and/or (3) collection, use, and distribution of their personal or other sensitive information. The main issue for Congress over spyware is whether to enact new legislation specifically addressing spyware, or to rely on industry self-regulation and enforcement actions by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice under existing law. This report discusses this issue, as well as the opinions of both the opponents and the supporters of industry self-regulation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31406/
The Obama Administration's Open Government Initiative: Issues for Congress
This report reviews the objectives delineated in President Obama's Open Government Initiative (OGI) and examines the expectations placed on agencies to meet these objectives. This report reviews department and agency attempts to implement Obama Administration initiatives that seek to make the federal government more transparent, participatory, and collaborative. The report then analyzes options for congressional action in this area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31471/
The World Bank's Clean Technology Fund (CTF)
The United States Treasury has led efforts to create a $10 billion Clean Technology Fund (CTF), located at the World Bank, to help fund deployment of clean technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing economies. The Bush administration has asked Congress to authorize and appropriate U.S. funding of $2 billion over three years (FY2009 to FY2011). While many Members of Congress have expressed support for the CTF, others have raised concerns, primarily with respect to whether the CTF should finance carbon-based energy projects. To date, Congress has not passed legislation authorizing or appropriating U.S. contributions to the Fund. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10826/
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
In theory, state sales and use taxes are based on the destination principle, which prescribes that taxes should be paid where the consumption takes place. States are concerned because they anticipate gradually losing more tax revenue as the growth of Internet commerce allows more residents to buy products from vendors located out-of-state and evade use taxes. The size of the revenue loss from Internet commerce and subsequent tax evasion is uncertain. Congress is involved in this issue because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The degree of congressional involvement is an open question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10193/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228043/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
The federal government has long played a key role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84061/
State and Local Sales and Use Taxes and Internet Commerce
In theory, state sales and use taxes are based on the destination principle, which prescribes that taxes should be paid where the consumption takes place. States are concerned because they anticipate gradually losing more tax revenue as the growth of Internet commerce allows more residents to buy products from vendors located out-of-state and evade use taxes. The size of the revenue loss from Internet commerce and subsequent tax evasion is uncertain. Congress is involved in this issue because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The degree of congressional involvement is an open question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10474/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1862/
The Siting of Wireless Communications Facilities: An Overview of Federal, State, and Local Law
The siting of wireless communications facilities has been a topic of controversy in communities all over the United States. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 governs federal, state, and local regulation of the siting of communications towers by placing certain limitations on local zoning authority without totally preempting state and local law. This report provides an overview of the federal, state, and local laws governing the siting of wireless communications facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10561/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such agreements. Collaborative ventures are intended to accommodate the strengths and responsibilities of all sectors involved innovation and technology development. Given the increased popularity of cooperative programs, questions might be raised as to whether they are meeting expectations. These include questions about the emphasis on collaborative ventures in research rather than in technology development; cooperative manufacturing; defense vs. civilian support; and access by foreign companies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10511/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1912/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8728/
State and Local Sales and Use Taxes and Internet Commerce
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9752/
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9366/
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5745/
Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs801/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5255/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5252/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5251/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5250/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5254/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5253/
Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress
This report presents a working definition for the term “cyber terrorism”, plus background information describing how current technology and management processes may leave computers exposed to cyber-attack, and a discussion of possible effects of a cyber-attack. Potential issues for Congress are presented in the second section, including: whether appropriate guidance exists for a DOD information warfare response to a cyber-attack; whether the need to detect possible cyber terrorist activity interferes with individual privacy; whether the roles and responsibilities for protecting against a possible cyber terrorist attack need more clarity for government, industry, and home users; and, whether information sharing on cyber threats and vulnerabilities must be further increased between private industry and the federal government. The final section describes possible policy options for improving protection against threats from possible cyber terrorism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5513/
Prescription Drug Importation and Internet Sales: A Legal Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5775/
Legal Issues Related to Prescription Drug Sales on the Internet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5776/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5141/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9465/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9464/
Cooperative R
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9714/
Intercarrier Compensation: One Component of Telecom Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9128/
The Multi-State Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange (MATRIX) Pilot Project
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6066/
Computer Attack and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress
This report provides background information for three types of attacks against computers (cyber-attack, physical attack, and electromagnetic attack), and discusses related vulnerabilities for each type of attack. The report also describes the possible effects of a coordinated cyberattack, or computer network attack (CNA), against U.S. infrastructure computers, along with possible technical capabilities of international terrorists. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6315/
Creating a National Framework for Cybersecurity: An Analysis of Issues and Options
Cyber- security refers to three things: measures to protect information technology; the information it contains, processes, and transmits, and associated physical and virtual elements (which together comprise cyberspace); the degree of protection resulting from application of those measures; and the associated field of professional endeavor. This report aims to examine what kind of national cyber-security framework may be needed and how it might be implemented, and it addresses three questions: 1. Where are the major cyber-security weaknesses currently, and where might weaknesses be anticipated in the future? What are the major means of leverage for addressing those weaknesses? What roles should government and the private sector play in the use of those means of leverage to address current and potential future weaknesses? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6316/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6792/
Internet Tax Bills in the 107th Congress: A Brief Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1976/
Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs803/
U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology
Report regarding the role of the United States and other foreign companies in facilitating Internet censorship by repressive regimes overseas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227660/