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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
America COMPETES Acts: FY2008 to FY2013 Funding Tables

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008 to FY2013 Funding Tables

Date: October 31, 2014
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Description: The 2007 America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) is designed to “invest in innovation through research and development, and to improve the competitiveness of the United States.” This report tracks accounts and activities authorized by the 2007 and 2010 COMPETES Acts during each act’s authorization period. It includes only those accounts and activities for which the acts provide a defined (i.e., specific) appropriations authorization.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The “E-Rate” Program and Controversies

Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The “E-Rate” Program and Controversies

Date: July 28, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Description: This report addresses the controversial issues surrounding the E-rate program’s implementation and subsequent legislative measures introduced to address these issues. An additional issue, concern that minors may gain access to “inappropriate” material through the Internet has also had an impact on the E-rate program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Federal Data Security Breach Legislation

Selected Federal Data Security Breach Legislation

Date: April 9, 2012
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen Ann
Description: The protection of data, particularly data that can be used to identify individuals, has become an issue of great concern to Congress. This report discusses relevant legislation regarding data security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Date: May 29, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report discusses broadband Internet, examining what it is and the various technologies that allow for its transmission. Broadband or high-speed Internet access is provided by technologies that give users the ability to send and receive data at volumes and speeds far greater than access over traditional telephone lines; it also provides a continuous, "always on" connection (no need to dial-up) and a "two-way" capability, that is, the ability to both receive (download) and transmit (upload) data at high speeds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report provides an overview of the "digital divide", which is a term used to describe a perceived gap between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications and information technologies and those who do not.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Date: March 14, 2007
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G. & Gilroy, Angele A.
Description: This report examines issues regarding broadband access in the U.S., more specifically the "digital divide,” which is a term that has been used to characterize a gap between “information haves and have-nots,” or in other words, between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, computers, the Internet) and those who do not.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Date: March 16, 2015
Creator: Nolan, Andrew
Description: While considerable debate exists with regard to the best strategies for protecting America’s various cyber-systems and promoting cybersecurity, one point of general agreement amongst cyber-analysts is the perceived need for enhanced and timely exchange of cyber-threat intelligence both within the private sector and between the private sector and the government. This report examines the various legal issues that arise with respect to the sharing of cybersecurity intelligence, with a special focus on two distinct concepts: (1) sharing of cyberinformation within the government’s possession and (2) sharing of cyber-information within the possession of the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report tracks the evolution and content of the Internet tax freedom bills. In general, the bills would impose a federal moratorium on the ability of state and local governments to impose taxes on certain aspects of the Internet and would establish a temporary federal commission to study selected issues and make policy recommendations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Sales Taxation of Internet Transactions

State Sales Taxation of Internet Transactions

Date: January 11, 2005
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: This report examines state taxation of Internet transactions as well as efforts to achieve uniform state sales and use tax treatment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: August 22, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D), and determining what programs have the highest priority, for example, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report indicates the sweep of science and technology in many public policy issues, although it cannot provide a comprehensive examination of every science or technology issue which may be of interest to Congress. This report identifies other CRS reports that treat most of those issues in more depth. It is updated occasionally.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Point & Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Point & Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Date: April 6, 1998
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report discusses criteria to consider when judging the quality of an internet site and the best strategies for locating information on the World Wide Web. There are two ways to search the Internet. The first is to use subject guides (e.g., Yahoo, Galaxy, or WWW Virtual Library), which are compiled by human indexers. These present an organized hierarchy of categories so a searcher can “drill down” through their links. The second option is to use a search engine (e.g., Alta Vista, Hotbot, or InfoSeek), an automated software robot which indexes Web pages and retrieves information based on relevancy-ranked algorithms. This report describes how search engines index the World Wide Web, as well as various features common to most search engines. In addition, the report suggests searching tips for retrieving the most precise information. Finally, the report discusses Usenet news groups, email discussion lists, gophers, and miscellaneous Web resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Date: December 4, 2013
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have been initiated by individuals, as well as countries. Targets have included government networks, military defenses, companies, or political organizations, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, or intimidating political activists. This report provides links to selected authoritative resources related to cybersecurity issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Digital Television: An Overview

Digital Television: An Overview

Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: Digital television (DTV) is a new television service representing the most significant development in television technology since the advent of color television in the 1950s. DTV can provide sharper pictures, a wider screen, CD-quality sound, better color rendition, and other new services currently being developed. This report discusses a key issue in the Congressional debate over the digital transition has been addressing the millions of American over-the-air households whose existing analog televisions will require converter boxes in order to receive digital signals when the analog signal is turned off.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Transition to Digital Television: Is America Ready?

The Transition to Digital Television: Is America Ready?

Date: November 6, 2007
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report discusses the background and potential effects of the DTV Delay Act, which directs that all over-the-air full-power television broadcasts will become digital only.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Date: July 18, 2014
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. In addition, the report lists selected cybersecurity-related websites for congressional and government agencies, news, international organizations, and organizations or institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Agreement on Personal Data Privacy: In Brief

The EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Agreement on Personal Data Privacy: In Brief

Date: October 29, 2015
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses a recent judgement by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) that invalidates the Safe Harbor Agreement between the United States and the 28-member European Union (EU). Safe Harbor is a 15-year-old accord, under which personal data could legally be transferred between EU member countries and the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731 as Passed by the House

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731 as Passed by the House

Date: June 18, 2015
Creator: Fischer, Eric A. & Logan, Stephanie M.
Description: This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. Both bills focus on information sharing among private entities and between them and the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-China Cyber Agreement

U.S.-China Cyber Agreement

Date: October 16, 2015
Creator: Rollins, John W.; Lawrence, Susan V.; Rennack, Dianne E. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: During the state visit on September 24-25, 2015, President Xi Jinping of China and President Barack Obama reached a Cyber Agreement. This report briefly discusses that agreement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Privacy Law and Online Advertising: Legal Analysis of Data Gathering By Online Advertisers Such As Double Click and NebuAd

Privacy Law and Online Advertising: Legal Analysis of Data Gathering By Online Advertisers Such As Double Click and NebuAd

Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen A.
Description: This report discusses privacy issues arising from so called "e-havioral" advertising. This individual behavioral targeting has raised a number of privacy concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Date: November 9, 2015
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed. The report discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

Date: September 24, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, three research and development (R&D) initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department