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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Renewed Crypto Wars?

Renewed Crypto Wars?

Date: February 9, 2016
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report briefly examines renewed tensions between tech companies and the government regarding encryption "back doors" and how quickly-advancing technologies could impact law enforcement investigations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is Broadband Deployment Reasonable and Timely?

Is Broadband Deployment Reasonable and Timely?

Date: February 6, 2016
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report briefly discusses the state of broadband Internet in America as determined by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in its latest Broadband Progress Report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Date: January 15, 2016
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides links to cybersecurity-related committee hearings in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses. It also provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background and Congressional Oversight Issues for the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security

The Federal Cybersecurity Workforce: Background and Congressional Oversight Issues for the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security

Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: Francis, Kathryn A. & Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report examines congressional oversight of two strategies undertaken by Congress and the executive branch to strengthen the federal cybersecurity workforce: initiatives to define and identify the federal cybersecurity workforce, and hiring and pay flexibilities applicable to cybersecurity positions at the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Big Data in U.S. Agriculture

Big Data in U.S. Agriculture

Date: January 6, 2016
Creator: Stubbs, Megan
Description: This report discusses big data within the context of agriculture. Many observers predict that the growth of big data will bring positive benefits through enhanced production, resource efficiency, and improved adaptation to climate change. While lauded for its potentially revolutionary applications, big data is not without issues. From a policy perspective, issues related to big data involve nearly every stage of its existence, including its collection (how it is captured), management (how it is stored and managed), and use (how it is analyzed and used). It is still unclear how big data will progress within agriculture due to technical and policy challenges, such as privacy and security, for producers and policymakers. As Congress follows the issue, a number of questions may arise, including a principal one--what is the federal role?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Using Data to Improve Defense Acquisitions: Background, Analysis, and Questions for Congress

Using Data to Improve Defense Acquisitions: Background, Analysis, and Questions for Congress

Date: January 5, 2016
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe
Description: This report examines (1) the extent to which the Department of Defense (DOD) effectively uses data to inform decisionmaking, (2) some of the critical elements needed for DOD to use data more effectively, (3) recent efforts to improve DOD's use of data, and (4) potential questions for Congress. This report focuses primarily (but not exclusively) on defense acquisitions as a case study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: Selected Legal Issues

Data Security and Breach Notification Legislation: Selected Legal Issues

Date: December 28, 2015
Creator: Dolan, Alissa M.
Description: This report describes the common elements of several data security and breach notification bills that have been introduced in the 114th Congress, which broadly would impose security and notification requirements on businesses regardless of industry sector. It also discusses state laws that may apply in the event of a data breach and addresses two legal issues that may arise in consideration of new legislation about data security and breach notification.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Date: November 20, 2015
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed, and discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Date: November 17, 2015
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides links to cybersecurity-related committee hearings in the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses. It also provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Date: November 9, 2015
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed. The report discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Agreement on Personal Data Privacy: In Brief

The EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Agreement on Personal Data Privacy: In Brief

Date: October 29, 2015
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses a recent judgement by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) that invalidates the Safe Harbor Agreement between the United States and the 28-member European Union (EU). Safe Harbor is a 15-year-old accord, under which personal data could legally be transferred between EU member countries and the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-China Cyber Agreement

U.S.-China Cyber Agreement

Date: October 16, 2015
Creator: Rollins, John W.; Lawrence, Susan V.; Rennack, Dianne E. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: During the state visit on September 24-25, 2015, President Xi Jinping of China and President Barack Obama reached a Cyber Agreement. This report briefly discusses that agreement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet of Things: Frequently Asked Questions

The Internet of Things: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: October 13, 2015
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report was developed to assist Congress in responding to some commonly asked questions about the Internet of Things (IoT), a complex, often poorly understood phenomenon.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Date: October 5, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Commercial Outlook for a New Industry

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Commercial Outlook for a New Industry

Date: September 9, 2015
Creator: Canis, Bill
Description: This report discusses unmanned aircraft systems (UAS)--commonly referred to as drones-- which have become a staple of U.S. military reconnaissance and weapons delivery in overseas war zones such as Afghanistan. Now some new technologies and pending federal regulations are enabling the manufacture and use of UAS in domestic commerce, giving rise to a growing commercial UAS industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Encryption and Evolving Technology: Implications for U.S. Law Enforcement Investigations

Encryption and Evolving Technology: Implications for U.S. Law Enforcement Investigations

Date: September 8, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report provides an overview of the perennial issue involving technology outpacing law enforcement and discusses how policy makers and law enforcement officials have dealt with this issue in the past. It discusses the current debate surrounding smartphone data encryption and how this may impact U.S. law enforcement operations. The report also discusses existing law enforcement capabilities, the debate over whether law enforcement is "going dark" because of rapid technological advances, and resulting issues that policy makers may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Policy Implications of the Internet of Things

Policy Implications of the Internet of Things

Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: This report briefly discusses the Internet of Things (IoT), which is an umbrella term that many policymakers use to refer to the technologies and network structures that interconnect objects, humans, and animals to collect and analyze data and manage processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides links to cybersecurity committee hearings and legislation from the 112th, 113th, and 114th Congresses, as well as a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. Summaries of activities and findings are included as a series of tables.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: August 3, 2015
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. Support of IT R&D began because the government had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Expansion of WTO Information Technology Agreement Targets December Conclusion

Expansion of WTO Information Technology Agreement Targets December Conclusion

Date: July 28, 2015
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F.
Description: This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) expansion and agreement to expand the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) and eliminate tariffs on 201 goods not included in the original 1996 ITA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
OPM Data Breach: Personnel Security Background Investigation Data

OPM Data Breach: Personnel Security Background Investigation Data

Date: July 24, 2015
Creator: Christensen, Michelle D.
Description: This report provides information on the types of data that may be collected in a typical personnel security background investigation. In a July 9, 2015, news release on the cyber-intrusions of its systems, OPM "concluded with high confidence that sensitive information, including the Social Security Numbers (SSNs) of 21.5 million individuals, was stolen from the background investigation databases." This report is not an official statement of the data that was compromised in the OPM breach.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cyber Intrusion into U.S. Office of Personnel Management: In Brief

Cyber Intrusion into U.S. Office of Personnel Management: In Brief

Date: July 17, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin; Christensen, Michelle D.; Fischer, Eric A.; Lawrence, Susan V. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the recent U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) breaches, which may have compromised personal information of former and current federal employees. It also discusses issues and questions raised about the source of the breaches, possible uses of the information exfiltrated, potential national security ramifications, and implications for the cybersecurity of federal information systems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents

Date: July 15, 2015
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report provides links to cybersecurity-related committee hearings in the 112th and 113th Congresses. It also provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dark Web

Dark Web

Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report illuminates information on the various layers of the Internet, with a particular focus on the Dark Web. It discusses both legitimate and illicit uses of the Dark Web, including how the government may rely upon it. Throughout, the report raises issues that policy makers may consider as they explore means to curb malicious activity online.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department