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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Department of Science and Technology: A Recurring Theme

A Department of Science and Technology: A Recurring Theme

Date: February 3, 1995
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: Consolidation of many Federal research and development (R&D) activities into a Department of Science and Technology (S&T) has been proposed repeatedly since World War D, including in the last Congress. The trend, however, has been toward the creation of mission agencies with supporting R&D capabilities. Analyses of arguments for and against consolidation indicate that valid reasons exist on both sides of the issue. Specific consolidation proposals may be considered again during the 104th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness

Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness

Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, First Session

Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, First Session

Date: February 21, 1997
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies

Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies

Date: September 4, 1997
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Commission of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) and Defense Industries

China: Commission of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) and Defense Industries

Date: December 3, 1997
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: Congressional interest in the Chinese military, or People’s Liberation Army (PLA), has increased as a result of the March 1996 tensions in the Taiwan Strait, continuing allegations of Chinese proliferation of technology useful in weapons of mass destruction, and reports that some Chinese defense-related corporations have circumvented U.S. export controls to acquire dual-use technology. The Commission of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND), an important, high-level PLA organization, plays a role in China’s weapon programs, sales of civilian goods, acquisition of military technology, and arms sales and export controls. The purpose of this CRS Report is to examine the origins and command, roles, and influence of COSTIND.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Point and Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Point and Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Date: April 6, 1998
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Point & Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Point & Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Date: April 6, 1998
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: This report discusses criteria to consider when judging the quality of an internet site and the best strategies for locating information on the World Wide Web. There are two ways to search the Internet. The first is to use subject guides (e.g., Yahoo, Galaxy, or WWW Virtual Library), which are compiled by human indexers. These present an organized hierarchy of categories so a searcher can “drill down” through their links. The second option is to use a search engine (e.g., Alta Vista, Hotbot, or InfoSeek), an automated software robot which indexes Web pages and retrieves information based on relevancy-ranked algorithms. This report describes how search engines index the World Wide Web, as well as various features common to most search engines. In addition, the report suggests searching tips for retrieving the most precise information. Finally, the report discusses Usenet news groups, email discussion lists, gophers, and miscellaneous Web resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program

Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview

The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview

Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G & Schacht, Wendy H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Transfer of Missile and Satellite Technology to China: A Summary of H.Res. 463 Authorizing a House Select Committee

Transfer of Missile and Satellite Technology to China: A Summary of H.Res. 463 Authorizing a House Select Committee

Date: June 24, 1998
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Encryption Technology: Congressional Issues

Encryption Technology: Congressional Issues

Date: July 9, 1998
Creator: Nunno, Richard M
Description: This report discusses primarily, the controversy over encryption concerns what access the government should have to encrypted stored computer data or electronic communications (voice and data, wired and wireless) for law enforcement purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet

Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet

Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D; Katzman, Kenneth; Shuey, Robert & Behrens, Carl E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology

China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology

Date: August 13, 1998
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: Members of Congress are concerned about whether U.S. firms have provided technology or expertise to China for use in its ballistic missile program and whether a series of decisions by the Clinton Administration on satellite exports have facilitated legal or illegal transfers of missile-related technology to China. The New York Times reported in April 1998 that the Justice Department is conducting an ongoing criminal investigation into whether Loral Space and Communications (of New York), and Hughes Electronics (of Los Angeles) violated export control laws. The firms are alleged to have shared their findings with China on the cause of a Chinese rocket’s explosion while launching a U.S.-origin satellite in February 1996. In sharing their conclusions, the companies are said to have provided expertise that China could use to improve its ballistic missiles, including their guidance systems. This CRS report provides detailed background information, significant Congressional action, and a comprehensive chronology. The events summarized here, based on various open sources and interviews, pertain to various aspects of U.S. foreign and security policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet: An Overview of Six Key Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Internet: An Overview of Six Key Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Smith, Marcia S; Griffith, Jane Bortnick; Nunno, Richard M & Moteff, John D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Noto, Nonna A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report tracks the evolution and content of the Internet tax freedom bills. In general, the bills would impose a federal moratorium on the ability of state and local governments to impose taxes on certain aspects of the Internet and would establish a temporary federal commission to study selected issues and make policy recommendations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, Second Session

Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, Second Session

Date: September 9, 1998
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet: An Overview of Six Key Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Internet: An Overview of Six Key Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Date: November 5, 1998
Creator: Smith, Marcia S; Griffith, Jane Bortnick; Nunno, Richard M; Moteff, John D & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cooperative Research and Development Agreements

Cooperative Research and Development Agreements

Date: November 17, 1998
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is a mechanism established by P.L. 99-602, the Federal Technology Transfer Act, to allow the transfer of technology, knowledge, and expertise from government laboratories to the private sector for further development and commercialization. The government provides support in the way of overhead for research and development performed in the federal laboratory and is prohibited from providing funding directly to the partner in the collaborative effort. Currently, more than 5,000 CRADAs have been signed. As the 105th Congress determines its approach to science and technology policies, the role of CRADAs continues to be debated within the context of federal support for R&D
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
R&D Partnerships: Government-Industry Collaboration

R&D Partnerships: Government-Industry Collaboration

Date: November 17, 1998
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: Efforts by the 104th Congress to eliminate several government-industry-university research and development partnership programs reflected some opposition to federally funded programs designed to facilitate the commercialization of technology. Within the context of the budget decisions, the 106th Congress is expected to again debate the government's role in promoting collaborative ventures focused on generating new products and processes for the marketplace.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Year 2000 Problem: Potential Impacts on National Infrastructures

Year 2000 Problem: Potential Impacts on National Infrastructures

Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Nunno, Richard M
Description: The year 2000 (Y2K) computer problem poses a potential threat to the continued proper functioning of many national infrastructures. These include telecommunications, utilities, financial services, health care, transportation, government services, and military preparedness. Other sectors -- such as water, agriculture, food processing and distribution, emergency services, and small and medium sized businesses -- have also been identified as having potentially significant Y2K problems but, due to space constraints, are not discussed here. While public and private sector entities report progress toward resolving their Y2K problems, much uncertainty remains regarding which systems are most vulnerable to failures. The overall impact resulting from the Y2K problem to some degree still depends on remediation progress made in 1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department