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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: April 10, 2015
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: October 22, 2013
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: March 27, 2012
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Date: January 13, 2012
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: The federal government has long played a key role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: July 20, 2010
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194), which was passed to enhance the effectiveness of the various high-performance computing programs. The HPCC Program has evolved over time and is now called the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program, to better reflect its expanded mission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: The Anti-Spyware Coalition (ASC) defines spyware as "technologies deployed without appropriate user consent and/or implemented in ways that impair user control over (1) material changes that affect their user experience, privacy, or system security; (2) use of their system resources, including what programs are installed on their computers; and/or (3) collection, use, and distribution of their personal or other sensitive information. The main issue for Congress over spyware is whether to enact new legislation specifically addressing spyware, or to rely on industry self-regulation and enforcement actions by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice under existing law. This report discusses this issue, as well as the opinions of both the opponents and the supporters of industry self-regulation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: The term "spyware" is not well defined. Generally, it is used to refer to any software that is downloaded onto a person's computer without their knowledge. Spyware may collect information about a computer user's activities and transmit their information to someone else. Most spyware is installed surreptitiously, and most users are therefore unaware that spyware exists on their computers. A central point of the spyware debate in Congress is whether new laws are needed, or if industry self-regulation, coupled with enforcement actions under existing laws, such as the Trade Commission Act, is sufficient.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dark Web

Dark Web

Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report illuminates information on the various layers of the Internet, with a particular focus on the Dark Web. It discusses both legitimate and illicit uses of the Dark Web, including how the government may rely upon it. Throughout, the report raises issues that policy makers may consider as they explore means to curb malicious activity online.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Encryption and Evolving Technology: Implications for U.S. Law Enforcement Investigations

Encryption and Evolving Technology: Implications for U.S. Law Enforcement Investigations

Date: September 8, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report provides an overview of the perennial issue involving technology outpacing law enforcement and discusses how policy makers and law enforcement officials have dealt with this issue in the past. It discusses the current debate surrounding smartphone data encryption and how this may impact U.S. law enforcement operations. The report also discusses existing law enforcement capabilities, the debate over whether law enforcement is "going dark" because of rapid technological advances, and resulting issues that policy makers may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Encryption and Evolving Technology: Implications for U.S. Law Enforcement Investigations

Encryption and Evolving Technology: Implications for U.S. Law Enforcement Investigations

Date: February 18, 2016
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report provides an overview of the perennial issue involving technology outpacing law enforcement and discusses how policy makers and law enforcement officials have dealt with this issue in the past. It also outlines the current debate surrounding smartphone data encryption and how this may impact U.S. law enforcement operations, as well as existing law enforcement capabilities, the debate over whether law enforcement is "going dark" because of rapid technological advances, and resulting issues that policy makers may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewed Crypto Wars?

Renewed Crypto Wars?

Date: February 9, 2016
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report briefly examines renewed tensions between tech companies and the government regarding encryption "back doors" and how quickly-advancing technologies could impact law enforcement investigations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Date: October 17, 2014
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Description: This report briefly examines new issues for law enforcement regarding data encryption and smartphones including cyber-criminals and Apple's new privacy policy that removes the back-doors that law enforcement used to be able to use to access user data.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement

Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: January 15, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: This report discusses the concept of cybercrime and related cyber threats such as cyber espionage and cyber warfare, and questions whether--and under what circumstances--clear distinctions between the various threats should be delineated. It also outlines how current federal strategies may address cybercrime, including issues surrounding the measurement and tracking of cybercrime.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: Globalization and technological innovation have fostered the expansion of both legitimate and criminal operations across physical borders as well as throughout cyberspace. U.S. law enforcement has increasingly relied on intelligence-led policing, enhanced interagency cooperation, and technological implementation to confront 21st century crime. Issues for Congress are how it can leverage its legislative and oversight roles to bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime. It may also examine whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: July 20, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: This report looks at issues for Congress related to expansion of legitimate and criminal operations across physical borders and through cyberspace as a result of globalization and technological innovation. In particular, it considers how Congress can leverage its legislative and oversight roles to bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime and whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: July 19, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: This report looks at issues for Congress, such as how legislative and oversight roles can bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime, including operations in cyberspace. It also examines whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department