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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: Forty-three countries, including the United States, have signed the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime of November 2001. The U.S. Senate ratified the Convention on August 3, 2006. The Convention seeks to better combat cybercrime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative abilities, and boosting international cooperation. Supporters argue that the Convention will enhance deterrence, while critics counter it will have little effect without participation by countries in which cybercriminals operate freely. Others warn it will endanger privacy and civil liberties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: Forty-three countries, including the United States, have signed the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime of November 2001. The U.S. Senate ratified the Convention on August 3, 2006. The Convention seeks to better combat cybercrime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative abilities, and boosting international cooperation. Supporters argue that the Convention will enhance deterrence, while critics counter it will have little effect without participation by countries in which cybercriminals operate freely. Others warn it will endanger privacy and civil liberties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects

The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects

Date: April 6, 2001
Creator: Behrens, Carl E
Description: The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Best, Jr., Richard A.
Description: The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P. & Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: This report provides an analysis of how organized crime has capitalized on globalization by using borders as opportunities, relying on fast-paced technological change, and adapting its organizational structures. It illustrates how these transformations can impact U.S. persons, businesses, and interests. The report includes a discussion of how U.S. law enforcement conceptualizes organized crime in the 21st century and concludes by examining potential issues for Congress, including the extent to which organized crime is a national security threat (partly to be tackled by U.S. law enforcement agencies), congressional oversight regarding the federal coordination of organized crime investigations, and the utility of current resources appropriated to combat organized crime.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies

Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies

Date: September 4, 1997
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Department of Science and Technology: A Recurring Theme

A Department of Science and Technology: A Recurring Theme

Date: February 3, 1995
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: Consolidation of many Federal research and development (R&D) activities into a Department of Science and Technology (S&T) has been proposed repeatedly since World War D, including in the last Congress. The trend, however, has been toward the creation of mission agencies with supporting R&D capabilities. Analyses of arguments for and against consolidation indicate that valid reasons exist on both sides of the issue. Specific consolidation proposals may be considered again during the 104th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Superconducting Super Collider

Superconducting Super Collider

Date: August 27, 1987
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Energy Standard: Potential Qualifying Energy Sources

Clean Energy Standard: Potential Qualifying Energy Sources

Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi; Folger, Peter; Holt, Mark; Ratner, Michael & Sissine, Fred
Description: This report begins with a brief examination of clean energy, renewable energy, and alternative energy. It then presents possible selection criteria Congress could use to determine which sources could be eligible for a CES depending on the goal(s) of the CES. The report provides an overview of the energy sources most commonly discussed as potential CES qualifying sources: biomass, fossil fuels (natural gas combined-cycle and coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and sequestration), geothermal resources, nuclear, solar, water, and wind. The report describes where each source can be found in the United States, the estimated quantity available for electricity generation, technologies used to create electricity from the source, advantages and disadvantages of using the source for electricity generation, and policy implications should the source be included in a CES.5 The report also contains a section on energy efficiency and its potential inclusion in a CES.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources

Date: February 21, 2001
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources

Date: May 19, 2003
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Commercial Outlook for a New Industry

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Commercial Outlook for a New Industry

Date: September 9, 2015
Creator: Canis, Bill
Description: This report discusses unmanned aircraft systems (UAS)--commonly referred to as drones-- which have become a staple of U.S. military reconnaissance and weapons delivery in overseas war zones such as Afghanistan. Now some new technologies and pending federal regulations are enabling the manufacture and use of UAS in domestic commerce, giving rise to a growing commercial UAS industry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Date: January 8, 2013
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) show promise for reducing desalination costs. It discusses the Research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Date: January 2, 2015
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) that show promise for reducing desalination costs. It also discusses the research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology

Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology

Date: November 16, 1982
Creator: Chartrand, Robert L.; Carr, A. B. & Miller, Nancy
Description: Significant improvements in technology-supported information services have created opportunities for their utilization by the farmers and ranchers of our Nation. This report highlights the development and expanded offering of these systems, describes current operational and experimental systems, and presents salient legislative initiatives which address this priority area.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
OPM Data Breach: Personnel Security Background Investigation Data

OPM Data Breach: Personnel Security Background Investigation Data

Date: July 24, 2015
Creator: Christensen, Michelle D.
Description: This report provides information on the types of data that may be collected in a typical personnel security background investigation. In a July 9, 2015, news release on the cyber-intrusions of its systems, OPM "concluded with high confidence that sensitive information, including the Social Security Numbers (SSNs) of 21.5 million individuals, was stolen from the background investigation databases." This report is not an official statement of the data that was compromised in the OPM breach.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"

Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"

Date: January 18, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutionality of Requiring Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet to be Under a Separate Domain Name

Constitutionality of Requiring Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet to be Under a Separate Domain Name

Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: It is unclear whether making a “.xxx” domain mandatory would violate the First Amendment. Some propose making use of a “.xxx” domain voluntary, but others propose that Congress make it mandatory. The latter proposal raises the question whether a mandatory separate domain would violate the First Amendment, and this report focuses on that question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet

Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet

Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Voting

Internet Voting

Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Voting

Internet Voting

Date: September 23, 2003
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation

Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation

Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation

Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation

Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J & Nunno, Richard M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Superconducting Super Collider: Issues

Superconducting Super Collider: Issues

Date: November 1, 1987
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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