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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention
Forty-three countries, including the United States, have signed the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime of November 2001. The U.S. Senate ratified the Convention on August 3, 2006. The Convention seeks to better combat cybercrime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative abilities, and boosting international cooperation. Supporters argue that the Convention will enhance deterrence, while critics counter it will have little effect without participation by countries in which cybercriminals operate freely. Others warn it will endanger privacy and civil liberties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10144/
Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention
Forty-three countries, including the United States, have signed the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime of November 2001. The U.S. Senate ratified the Convention on August 3, 2006. The Convention seeks to better combat cybercrime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative abilities, and boosting international cooperation. Supporters argue that the Convention will enhance deterrence, while critics counter it will have little effect without participation by countries in which cybercriminals operate freely. Others warn it will endanger privacy and civil liberties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2394/
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects
The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1402/
Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution
The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26098/
Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies
Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs481/
A Department of Science and Technology: A Recurring Theme
Consolidation of many Federal research and development (R&D) activities into a Department of Science and Technology (S&T) has been proposed repeatedly since World War D, including in the last Congress. The trend, however, has been toward the creation of mission agencies with supporting R&D capabilities. Analyses of arguments for and against consolidation indicate that valid reasons exist on both sides of the issue. Specific consolidation proposals may be considered again during the 104th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs197/
Superconducting Super Collider
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Clean Energy Standard: Potential Qualifying Energy Sources
This report begins with a brief examination of clean energy, renewable energy, and alternative energy. It then presents possible selection criteria Congress could use to determine which sources could be eligible for a CES depending on the goal(s) of the CES. The report provides an overview of the energy sources most commonly discussed as potential CES qualifying sources: biomass, fossil fuels (natural gas combined-cycle and coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and sequestration), geothermal resources, nuclear, solar, water, and wind. The report describes where each source can be found in the United States, the estimated quantity available for electricity generation, technologies used to create electricity from the source, advantages and disadvantages of using the source for electricity generation, and policy implications should the source be included in a CES.5 The report also contains a section on energy efficiency and its potential inclusion in a CES. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40142/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources
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Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues
This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) show promise for reducing desalination costs. It discusses the Research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462780/
Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology
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Constitutionality of Proposals to Prohibit the Sale or Rental to Minors of Video Games with Violent or Sexual Content or "Strong Language"
It has been proposed that Congress prohibit the sale or rental to minors of video games that are rated “M” (mature) or “AO” (adults-only) by the Entertainment Software Ratings Board. This board is a non-governmental entity established by the Interactive Digital Software Association, and its ratings currently have no legal effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9144/
Constitutionality of Requiring Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet to be Under a Separate Domain Name
It is unclear whether making a “.xxx” domain mandatory would violate the First Amendment. Some propose making use of a “.xxx” domain voluntary, but others propose that Congress make it mandatory. The latter proposal raises the question whether a mandatory separate domain would violate the First Amendment, and this report focuses on that question. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9146/
Restrictions on Minors' Access to Material on the Internet
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Internet Voting
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Internet Voting
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Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation
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Internet Voting: Issues and Legislation
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Superconducting Super Collider: Issues
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Superconductivity Research and Technology in the Federal Government
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Technology Transfer And National Security Issues
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U.S.-Japanese Trade: The Semiconductor Arrangement
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Manipulating Molecules: The National Nanotechnology Initiative
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Manipulating Molecules: The National Nanotechnology Initiative
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Manipulating Molecules: The National Nanotechnology Initiative
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Manipulating Molecules: The National Nanotechnology Initiative
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Manipulating Molecules: Federal Support for Nanotechnology Research
The Bush Administration has requested $1.277 billion for nanotechnology research for FY2007. Nanotechnology is a newly emerging field of science where scientists and engineers are beginning to manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic levels in order to obtain materials and systems with significantly improved properties. Scientists note that nanotechnology is still in its infancy, with large scale practical applications 10 to 30 year away. Congressional concerns include funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), the potential environmental and health concerns associated with the development and deployment of nanotechnology, and the need to adopt international measurement standards for nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10288/
Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws
The federal computer fraud and abuse statute, 18 U.S.C. 1030, outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It is a cyber security law. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet. It shields them from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud. It is not a comprehensive provision, but instead it fills cracks and gaps in the protection afforded by other federal criminal laws. This is a brief sketch of Section 1030 and some of its federal statutory companions, including the amendments found in the Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83829/
Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws
This report discusses The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), 18 U.S.C. 1030, which is a cyber security law that outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461970/
Cybersecurity: Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S. 2111, 112th Congress)— A Legal Analysis
This report discusses the Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S. 2111) that would enhance the criminal penalties for the cyber crimes outlawed in the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). Those offenses include espionage, hacking, fraud, destruction, password trafficking, and extortion committed against computers and computer networks. S. 2111 contains some of the enhancements approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee when it reported the Personal Data Privacy and Security Act (S. 1151), S.Rept. 112-91 (2011). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462558/
Cybersecurity: Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S. 2111)—A Legal Analysis
The Cyber Crime Protection Security Act (S. 2111) would enhance the criminal penalties for the cyber crimes outlawed in the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). Those offenses include espionage, hacking, fraud, destruction, password trafficking, and extortion committed against computers and computer networks. S. 2111 contains some of the enhancements approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee when it reported the Personal Data Privacy and Security Act (S. 1151), S.Rept. 112-91 (2011). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86604/
Cybercrime: An Overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and Related Federal Criminal Laws
The federal computer fraud and abuse statute, 18 U.S.C. 1030, protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers used in interstate and foreign commerce. It shields them from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud. It is not a comprehensive provision, but instead it fills crack and gaps in the protection afforded by other federal criminal laws. This is a brief sketch of section 1030 and some of its federal statutory companions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9303/
Lasers Aimed at Aircraft Cockpits: Background and Possible Options to Address the Threat to Aviation Safety and Security
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Electronic Payments and the U.S. Payments System
This report provides a framework for understanding the paper-based and electronic components of the current U.S. payments system. It begins with a basic overview of the payments system, explaining the relative size and growth of various methods of payment. The report discusses paper-based payments and then examines the operations of wholesale and retail electronic payments. Finally, the report discusses some of the major policy issues concerning the regulation and supervision of electronic payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7026/
Legal Issues Related to Prescription Drug Sales on the Internet
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Prescription Drug Importation and Internet Sales: A Legal Overview
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Digital Surveillance: The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA, P.L. 103- 414, 47 USC 1001-1010), enacted October 25, 1994, is intended to preserve the ability of law enforcement officials to conduct electronic surveillance effectively and efficiently despite the deployment of new digital technologies and wireless services that have altered the character of electronic surveillance. CALEA requires telecommunications carriers to modify their equipment, facilities, and services, wherever reasonably achievable, to ensure that they are able to comply with authorized electronic surveillance actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9149/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272106/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228043/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84062/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
The federal government has long played a key role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84061/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462945/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
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The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
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The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
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Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress
The Anti-Spyware Coalition (ASC) defines spyware as "technologies deployed without appropriate user consent and/or implemented in ways that impair user control over (1) material changes that affect their user experience, privacy, or system security; (2) use of their system resources, including what programs are installed on their computers; and/or (3) collection, use, and distribution of their personal or other sensitive information. The main issue for Congress over spyware is whether to enact new legislation specifically addressing spyware, or to rely on industry self-regulation and enforcement actions by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice under existing law. This report discusses this issue, as well as the opinions of both the opponents and the supporters of industry self-regulation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31406/
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress
The term "spyware" is not well defined. Generally, it is used to refer to any software that is downloaded onto a person's computer without their knowledge. Spyware may collect information about a computer user's activities and transmit their information to someone else. Most spyware is installed surreptitiously, and most users are therefore unaware that spyware exists on their computers. A central point of the spyware debate in Congress is whether new laws are needed, or if industry self-regulation, coupled with enforcement actions under existing laws, such as the Trade Commission Act, is sufficient. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10401/
Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress
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Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress
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