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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents
This report provides links to cybersecurity-related committee hearings in the 112th and 113th Congresses. It also provides a list of executive orders and presidential directives pertaining to information and computer security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700752/
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress
This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed. The report discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700696/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of Legislative Proposals in the 114th Congress
This report compares two House bills and one Senate bill that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. The report consists of an overview of those and other legislative proposals on information sharing, along with selected associated issues, followed by a side-by-side analysis of the National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015 (NCPAA), the Protecting Cyber Networks Act (PCNA), and the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 (CISA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700704/
Protecting Civil Aviation from Cyberattacks
This report briefly discusses cyber-security issues in civil aviation. unclear. A recent probe into alleged hacking incidents unfolded just weeks after the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) alerted airlines to be on the lookout for passengers trying to tap into aircraft electronics and for evidence of tampering or network intrusions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700743/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731 as Passed by the House
This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. This report consists of an overview of those and other legislative proposals on information sharing, along with selected associated issues, followed by a side-by-side analysis of the two House bills as passed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700817/
Dark Web
This report illuminates information on the various layers of the Internet, with a particular focus on the Dark Web. It discusses both legitimate and illicit uses of the Dark Web, including how the government may rely upon it. Throughout, the report raises issues that policy makers may consider as they explore means to curb malicious activity online. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700882/
Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis
This report analyzes the sharing of cyberattack information by government with private companies, by private companies with the government, and among private companies. Sharing information with consumers is mentioned but is not the central focus of this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689138/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of Legislative Proposals in the 114th Congress
This report compares two House bills and one Senate bill that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. It also discusses some of the issues that those and other bills address. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689208/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731 as Passed by the House
This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689204/
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief
This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689445/
Tracking Federal Funds: USAspending.gov and Other Data Sources
This report discusses USAspending.gov, which collects data on grants, loans, insurance, assistance, and contracts, and it presents various searching and downloading options to Congress and the public. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626949/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731 as Passed by the House
This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627150/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under a variety of cybersecurity topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627154/
A Federal Chief Technology Officer in the Obama Administration: Options and Issues for Consideration
This report presents President Obama's vision for the chief technology officer (CTO) position. It also discusses the potential scope of the position's duties, articulates organizational precedents and challenges for the CTO, reviews some of the activities undertaken by Aneesh Chopra during his tenure as CTO, and identifies issues Congress may choose to consider if it opts to exert oversight or to develop legislation to create the position and/or office of the CTO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627235/
Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis
This report analyzes the incentives for companies to share information about cybersecurity breaches with other companies and the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505415/
Privacy Law and Online Advertising
This report will examine the application of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act and the Communications Act to online behavioral advertising in more detail. It is likely that in many cases these laws could be held to apply to such activities and that these methods of data collection would be forbidden unless consent is obtained from one of the parties to the communication. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505388/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: policy overview; National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC); cloud computing and FedRAMP; critical infrastructure; cybercrime, data breaches and data security; national security, cyber espionage, and cyberwar (including Stuxnet); international efforts; education/training/workforce; and research and development (R&D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505562/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505596/
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Comparison of H.R. 1560 and H.R. 1731
This report compares provisions in two bills in the House of Representatives that address information sharing and related activities in cybersecurity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505493/
Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress
This report identifies cybersecurity policy issues that have been proposed for priority consideration. The report lists and synopsizes current legislation that has been developed to address various aspects of the cybersecurity problem. It then lists the current status of the legislation and compares legislation with existing executive branch initiatives. Finally, analysis of information contained in executive branch initiatives and congressional legislation is used to further highlight related considerations for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505404/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
This report discusses the federal government's role in the country's information technology (IT) research and development (R&D) activities. The government's support of IT R&D began because it had an important interest in creating computers and software that would be capable of addressing the problems and issues the government needed to solve and study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505509/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of nanotechnology, nanomanufacturing, and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. Congress has demonstrated continuing support for nanotechnology and has directed its attention primarily to three topics that may affect the realization of this hoped for potential: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505608/
Social Networking and Constituent Communications: Member Use of Twitter During a Two-Month Period in the 111th Congress
This report examines Twitter usage by Members of Congress during August and September 2009. It includes background about Twitter and data analysis of Member registration, usage, tweets, and followers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505624/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under a variety of cybersecurity topics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503534/
The Technology Innovation Program
This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503312/
Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis
This report analyzes the sharing of cyberattack information by government with private companies, by private companies with the government, and among private companies. Sharing information with consumers is mentioned but is not the central focus of this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503362/
Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate
This report discusses the continued debate amongst congressional policymakers regarding telecommunications reform. A major point of the ongoing discussion is whether action is needed to ensure unfettered access to the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503673/
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress
This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed. The report discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503671/
Information Warfare: The Role of Social Media in Conflict
This report briefly discusses the use if social media as a tool of information warfare. The ability to rapidly disseminate graphic images and ideas to shape the public narrative transforms social media into a strategic weapon in the hands of terrorists, insurgent groups, or governments engaged in conflict. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503647/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
This report discusses congressional interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. The proper role of the federal government in technology development and the competitiveness of U.S. industry continues to be a topic of congressional debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503350/
Universal Service Fund: Background and Options for Reform
This report discusses the idea that all Americans should be able to afford access to the telecommunications network; this is commonly called the "universal service concept" and can trace its origins back to the 1934 Communications Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503469/
Use of Trademarks as Keywords to Trigger Internet Search Engine Advertisements
This report provides a summary and analysis of judicial opinions that have developed the current state of trademark law governing keyword-triggered advertising. It discusses background of the issue, keyword advertising, and litigation related to keyword advertising. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503409/
U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology
This report provides information regarding the role of U.S. and other foreign companies in facilitating Internet censorship by repressive regimes overseas. The report is divided into several sections: Examination of repressive policies in China and Iraq, Relevant U.S. laws, U.S. policies to promote Internet freedom, Private sector initiatives, and Congressional action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503540/
Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate
This report discusses the continued debate amongst congressional policymakers regarding telecommunications reform. A major point of the ongoing discussion is whether action is needed to ensure unfettered access to the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503368/
The Network for Manufacturing Innovation
This report discusses the Revitalize American Manufacturing and Innovation Act of 2014 (RAMIA). RAMIA includes provisions authorizing the Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other agencies to support the establishment of centers for manufacturing innovation, as well as establishing and providing for the operation of a Network for Manufacturing Innovation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503321/
Aereo and FilmOn X: Internet Television Streaming and Copyright Law
This report begins with a discussion of the technology used by Aereo and FilmOn X that permit subscribers to watch live broadcast television as well as already-aired programming. It then examines the public performance right in the Copyright Act and discusses the interpretation of the transmit clause and public performance right by the courts in the Aereo and FilmOn cases. The report concludes with a brief overview of future litigation by these parties and related legislative proposals in the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503662/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: policy overview; National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC); cloud computing and FedRAMP; critical infrastructure; cybercrime, data breaches and data security; national security, cyber espionage, and cyberwar (including Stuxnet); international efforts; education/training/workforce; and research and development (R&D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503611/
The America COMPETES Acts: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the COMPETES Acts for readers seeking background and legislative context. It includes a description and legislative history of the acts, a summary of the broad policy debate, and an examination of the implementation status of selected COMPETES-related programs and policies. This report also highlights major bills to reauthorize the COMPETES Acts from the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503696/
Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement
This report discusses the concept of cybercrime and related cyber threats such as cyber espionage and cyber warfare, and questions whether--and under what circumstances--clear distinctions between the various threats should be delineated. It also outlines how current federal strategies may address cybercrime, including issues surrounding the measurement and tracking of cybercrime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503621/
Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic
This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. The reports and related websites are grouped under the following cybersecurity topics: policy overview; National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC); cloud computing and FedRAMP; critical infrastructure; cybercrime, data breaches and data security; national security, cyber espionage, and cyberwar (including Stuxnet); international efforts; education/training/workforce; and research and development (R&D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503613/
Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues
This report discusses the Domain Name System (DNS), which is the distributed set of databases residing in computers around the world that contain address numbers mapped to corresponding domain names, making it possible to send and receive messages and to access information from computers anywhere on the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503406/
A Federal Chief Technology Officer in the Obama Administration: Options and Issues for Consideration
In November 2007, Senator Barack Obama announced his intention, if elected President, to appoint a federal chief technology officer (CTO). On April 18, 2009, President Obama appointed Virginia Secretary of Technology, Aneesh P. Chopra, to serve as "America's Chief Technology Officer." This report presents President Obama's vision for the CTO position put forth during his campaign for the presidency and during the presidential transition. It also discusses the potential scope of duties and authorities of the CTO, articulates organizational precedents and challenges for the CTO, reviews some of the activities undertaken by Aneesh Chopra during his tenure as CTO, and identifies issues Congress may choose to consider if it opts to exert oversight or to develop legislation to create the position and/or office of the CTO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501877/
U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology
This report provides information regarding the role of U.S. and other foreign companies in facilitating Internet censorship by repressive regimes overseas. The report is divided into several sections: Examination of repressive policies in China and Iran, Relevant U.S. laws, U.S. policies to promote Internet freedom, Private sector initiatives, and Congressional action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501844/
Cyber Operations in DOD Policy and Plans: Issues for Congress
This report presents an overview of the threat landscape in cyberspace, including the types of offensive weapons available, the targets they are designed to attack, and the types of actors carrying out the attacks. It presents a picture of what kinds of offensive and defensive tools exist and a brief overview of recent attacks. The report then describes the current status of U.S. capabilities, and the national and international authorities under which the U.S. Department of Defense carries out cyber operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501838/
Cybersecurity Issues and Challenges: In Brief
The information and communications technology (ICT) industry has evolved greatly over the last half century. The technology is ubiquitous and increasingly integral to almost every facet of modern society. ICT devices and components are generally interdependent, and disruption of one may affect many others. Over the past several years, experts and policy makers have expressed increasing concerns about protecting ICT systems from cyberattacks, which many experts expect to increase in frequency and severity over the next several years. This report discusses the concept of cybersecurity, the management of cybersecurity risks, and the federal government's role in managing such risks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501605/
Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues
This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) that show promise for reducing desalination costs. It also discusses the research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501882/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of the nanotechnology that is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501924/
Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate
This report discusses the continued debate amongst congressional policymakers regarding telecommunications reform. A major point of the ongoing discussion is whether action is needed to ensure unfettered access to the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501905/
Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis
This report analyzes the incentives for companies to share information about cybersecurity breaches with other companies and the federal government. Data breaches, such as those at Target, Home Depot, Neiman Marcus, and JPMorgan Chase, affecting financial records of tens of millions of households seem to occur regularly. Companies typically respond by trying to increase their cybersecurity by hiring consultants and purchasing new hardware and software. Policy analysts have suggested that sharing information about these breaches could be an effective and inexpensive part of improving cybersecurity. Firms share information directly on an ad hoc basis and through private-sector, nonprofit organizations such as Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) that can analyze and disseminate information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501916/
The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress
The federal role in cybersecurity has been a topic of discussion and debate for over a decade. Despite significant legislative efforts in the 112th Congress on bills designed to improve the cybersecurity of U.S. critical infrastructure (CI), no legislation on that issue was enacted in that Congress. This report discusses the ramifications of Executive Order 13636, which issued in February 2013 was an attempt to enhance security and resiliency of CI through voluntary, collaborative efforts involving federal agencies and owners and operators of privately owned CI, as well as use of existing federal regulatory authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501519/
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