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 Resource Type: Report
 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: This report discusses contribution of technological advancement to economic growth and productivity increases. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Date: December 28, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: This report discusses contribution of technological advancement to economic growth and productivity increases. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: This report discusses contribution of technological advancement to economic growth and productivity increases. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Date: January 27, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: This report discusses the ongoing congressional interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development. Legislative activity over the past decade has created a policy for technology development, albeit an ad hoc one. Because of the lack of consensus on the scope and direction of a national policy, Congress has taken an incremental approach aimed at creating new mechanisms to facilitate technological advancement in particular areas and making changes and improvements as necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Date: May 8, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: This report discusses the ongoing congressional interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development. Legislative activity over the past decade has created a policy for technology development, albeit an ad hoc one. Because of the lack of consensus on the scope and direction of a national policy, Congress has taken an incremental approach aimed at creating new mechanisms to facilitate technological advancement in particular areas and making changes and improvements as necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Manufacturing, Technology, and Competitiveness

Manufacturing, Technology, and Competitiveness

Date: January 12, 1999
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: This report discusses increases in the productivity of American firms to maintain competitiveness in the international marketplace.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet and E-Commerce Statistics: What They Mean and Where to Find Them on the Web

Internet and E-Commerce Statistics: What They Mean and Where to Find Them on the Web

Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: Statistics indicating Internet usage are imprecise. It is difficult to measure the scale of the Internet (or the World Wide Web), calculate the number and types of users (age, sex, race, gender, location, etc.), or forecast future growth. This report discusses the inherent complexities of estimating Internet and electronic commerce growth and describes various types of Internet statistics, discussing how to evaluate them and providing Web addresses for locating them. In addressing these topics, it is important to understand how the statistics are compiled, how they are used, and what their limitations are.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Transactions and the Sales Tax

Internet Transactions and the Sales Tax

Date: December 12, 2000
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report is an introduction to the economics of electronic commerce and its potential impact on sales and use tax collections. Presently, 45 states (and the District of Columbia) require that retail outlets add a fixed percentage to the sales price of all taxable items (inclusive of federally imposed excise taxes).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Date: March 31, 2004
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: State governments rely on sales and use taxes for approximately one-third (33.6%) of their total tax revenue - or approximately $179 billion in FY2002 .' Local governments derived 12.4% of their tax revenue or $44 .1 billion from local sales and use taxes in FY20012 Both state and local sales taxes are collected by vendors at the time of transaction and are levied at a percentage of a product's retail price. Alternatively, use taxes are not collected by the vendor if the vendor does not have nexus (loosely defined as a physical presence) in the consumer's state . Consumers are required to remit use taxes to their taxing jurisdiction . However, compliance with this requirement is quite low. Because of the low compliance, many observers suggest that the expansion of the internet as a means of transacting business across state lines, both from business to consumer (B to C) and from business to business (B to B), threatens to diminish the ability of state and local governments to collect sales and use taxes . Congress has a role in this issue because commerce between parties in different states conducted over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.' ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Privacy - Protecting Personal Information: Overview and Pending Legislation

Internet Privacy - Protecting Personal Information: Overview and Pending Legislation

Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: The privacy of information collected by operators of World Wide Web sites is a growing issue of concern. Many in Congress and the Clinton Administration prefer to rely on industry self regulation to protect consumer privacy, but frustration at industry's slow pace led to the 1998 passage of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act in 1998 (P.L. 105-277). This report provides a very abbreviated overview of Internet privacy issues and tracks pending legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Junk E-mail": An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail ("Spam")

"Junk E-mail": An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail ("Spam")

Date: May 28, 2002
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), also called “spam” or “junk e-mail,” aggravates many computer users. Not only can it be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic. Proponents of UCE insist it is a legitimate marketing technique and protected by the First Amendment. Legislation to place limits on UCE was considered by the last two Congresses, but no bill cleared Congress. Several bills have been introduced in the 107th Congress. H.R. 718 was reported from the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the House Judiciary Committee (H. Rept. 107-41, Parts 1 and 2). The two versions are quite different. S. 630 was ordered reported from the Senate Commerce Committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Junk E-mail": An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail ("Spam")

"Junk E-mail": An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail ("Spam")

Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), also called “spam” or “junk e-mail,” aggravates many computer users. Not only can it be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic. Proponents of UCE insist it is a legitimate marketing technique and protected by the First Amendment. Legislation to place limits on UCE was considered by the last three Congresses (105th-107th), but no federal law was enacted (27 states have anti-spam laws, however). Two bills have been introduced in the 108th Congress: S. 563 (Dayton) and S. 877 (Burns).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
"Junk E-mail": An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail ("Spam")

"Junk E-mail": An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail ("Spam")

Date: May 15, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: Unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), also called “spam” or “junk e-mail,” aggravates many computer users. Not only can spam be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic. Proponents of spam insist it is a legitimate marketing technique and protected by the First Amendment. While 27 states have anti-spam laws, there is no federal law. Four bills are pending in the 108th Congress: H.R. 1933, S. 563, S. 877, and S. 1052. (Spam on wireless devices such as cell phones is discussed in CRS Report RL31636.)
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues

Federal Voluntary Voting System Guidelines: Summary and Analysis of Issues

Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Fischer, Eric A
Description: This report begins with a discussion of the historical context of the VVSG, followed by a summary of the guidelines and a discussion of each of the issues identified above. However, there are many specific issues, such as whether wireless communications should be permitted, that are not covered here. The report also briefly summarizes relevant legislative proposals in the 109th Congress
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Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 109th Congress

Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Noto, Nonna A
Description: This report discusses issues of state and local taxation of Internet transactions because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress

High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress

Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: McLoughlin, Glenn J. & Fergusson, Ian F
Description: Congress has a strong interest in export control policy with regard to technologies that may have both commercial and military applications outside of the United States. Through its constitutionally delegated authority to regulate foreign commerce, Congress has the authority to control exports for national security or foreign policy purposes. This report examines congressional interest in the exportation of High Performance Computers, which are either single computing machines (usually called supercomputers) or a cluster of easily available, high-end workstations or personal computers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194), which was passed to enhance the effectiveness of the various high-performance computing programs. The HPCC Program has evolved over time and is now called the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program, to better reflect its expanded mission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology

Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology

Date: November 16, 1982
Creator: Chartrand, Robert L.; Carr, A. B. & Miller, Nancy
Description: Significant improvements in technology-supported information services have created opportunities for their utilization by the farmers and ranchers of our Nation. This report highlights the development and expanded offering of these systems, describes current operational and experimental systems, and presents salient legislative initiatives which address this priority area.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: Issues for Information Technology Management

Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: Issues for Information Technology Management

Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Seifert, Jeffrey W.
Description: This report discusses government efforts to increase efficiency. One approach being implemented to reduce duplicative spending and improve cross-agency collaboration is the use of enterprise architecture (EA) planning across the federal government. An EA serves as a blueprint of the business operations of an organization, and the information and technology needed to carry out these functions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Date: January 18, 2002
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: State governments rely on sales and use taxes for approximately one-third (32.3%) of their total tax revenue – or approximately $174 billion in FY2000. Local governments derived 16.4% of their tax revenue or $51.6 billion from local sales and use taxes in FY1999. Both state and local sales taxes are collected by vendors at the time of transaction and are levied at a percentage of a product’s retail price. Alternatively, use taxes are not collected by vendors if they do not have nexus (loosely defined as a physical presence) in the consumer’s state. Consumers are required to remit use taxes to their taxing jurisdiction. However, compliance with this requirement is quite low. Because of the low compliance, many observers suggest that the expansion of the internet as a means of transacting business across state lines, both from business to consumer (B to C) and from business to business (B to B), threatens to diminish the ability of state and local governments to collect sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because commerce between parties in different states conducted over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress can either take an active or ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Date: August 15, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.; Moteff, John D.; Gilroy, Angele A.; Seifert, Jeffrey W.; Moloney Figliola, Patricia & Tehan, Rita
Description: The continued growth of the Internet for personal, government, and business purposes may be affected by a number of technology policy issues being debated by Congress. Among them are access to and regulation of broadband (high-speed) Internet services, computer and Internet security, Internet privacy, the impact of “spam,” concerns about what children may encounter (such as pornography) when using the Internet, management of the Internet Domain Name System, and government information technology management. This report provides overviews of those issues, plus appendices providing a list of pending legislation, a list of acronyms, a discussion of legislation passed in earlier Congresses, and a list of other CRS reports that provide more detail on these and related topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Date: January 18, 2002
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: State governments rely on sales and use taxes for approximately one-third (32.3%) of their total tax revenue – or approximately $174 billion in FY2000. Local governments derived 16.4% of their tax revenue or $51.6 billion from local sales and use taxes in FY1999. Both state and local sales taxes are collected by vendors at the time of transaction and are levied at a percentage of a product’s retail price. Alternatively, use taxes are not collected by vendors if they do not have nexus (loosely defined as a physical presence) in the consumer’s state. Consumers are required to remit use taxes to their taxing jurisdiction. However, compliance with this requirement is quite low. Because of the low compliance, many observers suggest that the expansion of the internet as a means of transacting business across state lines, both from business to consumer (B to C) and from business to business (B to B), threatens to diminish the ability of state and local governments to collect sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because commerce between parties in different states conducted over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress can either take an active or ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Date: August 15, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G; Moteff, John D.; Gilroy, Angele A.; Seifert, Jeffrey W.; Moloney Figliola, Patricia & Tehan, Rita
Description: The continued growth of the Internet for personal, government, and business purposes may be affected by a number of technology policy issues being debated by Congress. Among them are access to and regulation of broadband (high-speed) Internet services, computer and Internet security, Internet privacy, the impact of “spam,” concerns about what children may encounter (such as pornography) when using the Internet, management of the Internet Domain Name System, and government information technology management. This report provides overviews of those issues, plus appendices providing a list of pending legislation, a list of acronyms, a discussion of legislation passed in earlier Congresses, and a list of other CRS reports that provide more detail on these and related topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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