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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
State Corporate Income Taxes: A Description and Analysis
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State Estate and Gift Tax Revenue
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State Estate and Gift Tax Revenue
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State Revenue from Estate, Inheritance, and Gift Taxes
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State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report discusses significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463510/
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462442/
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress will likely be asked to choose between taking either an active or passive role in the debate. In the 111th Congress, H.R. 5660 (former Representative Delahunt) would have granted SSUTA member states the authority to compel out-of- state vendors to collect sales and use taxes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83968/
The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement: A Brief Description
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The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement: A Brief Description
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Tax Credit Bonds: Overview and Analysis
Almost all state and local governments sell bonds to finance public projects and certain qualified private activities. Most of the bonds issued are tax-exempt bonds because the interest payments are not included in the bondholder's (purchaser's) federal taxable income. In contrast, Tax Credit Bonds (TCBs) are a type of bond that offers the holder a federal tax credit instead of interest. This report explains the tax credit mechanism and describes the market for the bonds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491320/
Tax Credit Bonds: Overview and Analysis
Tax Credit Bonds (TCBs) are a type of bond that offers the holder a federal tax credit instead of interest. This report explains the tax credit mechanism and describes the market for the bonds. It also discusses related pieces of legislation and what the most common uses of the proceeds from TCBs are. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26145/
Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 109th Congress
This report discusses issues of state and local taxation of Internet transactions because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8277/
Federal Deductibility of State and Local Taxes
This report provides a brief history of deductible state and local taxes, and discusses deduction for real estate property taxes, deductions for income, sales, and use taxes. The report also discusses policy alternatives and current legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491408/
The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals: Legislative Activity in the 110th Congress
The alternative minimum tax (AMT) for individuals was originally enacted to ensure that all taxpayers, especially high-income taxpayers, pay at least a minimum amount of federal taxes. However, the AMT is not indexed for inflation, and this factor, combined with recent reductions in the regular income tax, has greatly expanded the potential impact of the AMT. This report explains legislation for the FY2009 budget compromise, which includes an offset AMT patch. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10764/
The Rum Excise Tax Cover-Over: Legislative History and Current Issues
This report provides a history and analysis of the rum cover-over program and current legislative efforts to modify the program. The congressional debate on this legislation could also lead to debate on the broader issue of the cover-over program more generally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505462/
Business Tax Issues in 2009
This report discusses the tax climate for businesses, while economic stimulus proposals dominate the congressional debate. During 2009, it is anticipated that congressional deliberations will once again turn towards the extension of several expiring business tax provisions, energy taxation, tax shelters, and international taxation, while continuing to examine opportunities to stimulate the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700568/
Tax Treaty Legislation in the 110th Congress: Explanation and Economic Analysis
This report discusses the proposals that are designed to curb “treaty shopping” — instances where a foreign parent firm in one country receives its U.S.-source income through an intermediate subsidiary in a third country that is signatory to a tax-reducing treaty with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96794/
Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers
This report discusses the major issues surrounding the tax treatment of hedge fund and private equity managers and will be updated as legislative developments warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462305/
Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing
This report discusses the impact of taxes on international trade and investment has been debated for decades. Most recently, a variety of bills addressing international taxation have been introduced in the 110th Congress—some would cut taxes for U.S. firms overseas, while others would increase taxes on foreign investment. The debate over taxes and foreign outsourcing has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment; questions arise over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. The debate over international taxation has again become prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current system affects outsourcing, and whether policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822650/
U.S. Taxation of Overseas Investment and Income: Background and Issues
This report analyzes how the current U.S. tax system applies to foreign investment undertaken by U.S. firms abroad, and how that application was changed by recent legislation. It also assesses the impact of the tax system and legislation, and concludes by discussing a variety of issues in international taxation that Congress may face in 2008 and beyond. It begins with a brief examination of the data on international investment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462482/
Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues
This report begins with a brief discussion of relevant portions of the U.S. corporate income tax system before examining how inversions were commonly structured. The report then looks at how Congress and Department of the Treasury have reduced the benefits of inversions. The report concludes with an examination of methods that remain to invert and policy options available to prevent or limit these inversions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462056/
Tax Cuts on Repatriation Earnings as Economic Stimulus: An Economic Analysis
From the start of the 112th Congress, reform of the current U.S. corporate tax system has been widely debated as an option to stimulate the economy. Most of the debate has focused on lowering the corporate tax rate and moving towards a territorial system. An exception to this is a plan to reduce the tax rate on repatriated dividends that has received some consideration. Under such a plan, the U.S. tax that U.S. firms pay when their overseas operations remit ("repatriate") their foreign earnings as dividends to their U.S. parent corporations would be reduced. Variations of this type of proposal have been introduced in several bills, including H.R. 1036, H.R. 1834, and S. 727, in the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40070/
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
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Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
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Characteristics of and Reporting Requirements for Selected Tax-Exempt Organizations
This report addresses in summary fashion the differences among several kinds of tax-exempt organizations described in Internal Revenue Code [IRC] subsections 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4), 501(c)(5), 501(c)(6), and section 527. Each of these types of organization has a unique statutory definition, is subject to certain statutory limitations on its activities, enjoys certain benefits from obtaining tax-exempt status, and must share certain information with the general public. Following the report is a table which summarizes this information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1959/
Comparison of 501(c )(3) and 501(c )(4) Organizations
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Conservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes
Farmers enrolling their land in the Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) receive payments for refraining from farming their property and for engaging in certain conservation practices mandated by the Department of Agriculture. These payments are described in the contract with the Department of Agriculture as "rental payments." Farmers would like to treat the income as "rental income" because it would not be subject to self-employment taxes, but the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) insists that under certain conditions, the payments are income from the trade or business of farming and thus subject to self-employment taxes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1066/
Selected Tax Law Changes Effective January 1, 2002
This report is a listing of the tax changes which were enacted during 2001 and effective at the beginning of 2002 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7036/
Taxpayer Protection and IRS Accountability Act of 2002, H.R. 3991
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Taxpayer Protections in the IRS Restructuring Bill: Attorneys' Fees and Damages for IRS Abuses
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Taxpayer Protections in the Proposed IRS Restructuring Act: Burden of Proof
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Taxpayer Protection and IRS Accountability Act of 2003, H.R. 1528
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527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10189/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. The report will be updated as new proposals are reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1156/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. For developments after the enactment of P.L. 106-230, please see CRS Report RS20650, 527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9625/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10190/
527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230
On July 1, 2000, President Clinton signed H.R. 4762, P.L. 106-230. The law amended the Internal Revenue Code [IRC] to require political organizations described in IRC § 527 to disclose their political activities, if they were not already required to do so by the Federal Election Campaign Act [FECA]. This report summarizes the three major changes made by the law and some of the major responses to the legislation. First, all 527 organizations which expect to have over $25,000 in gross receipts during a taxable year and which are not required to report to the Federal Election Commission [FEC] are required to register with the IRS within 24 hours of their formation, whether they are involved in state, local, or federal elections. Second, 527 issue advocacy organizations, which previously reported neither to the IRS nor the FEC, are required to file regular disclosure statements with the IRS. Third, all 527 organizations with gross receipts in excess of $25,000 per year are required to file annual reports with the IRS. The registration statements, disclosure forms, and annual reports will be made public. H.R. 527 and S. 527 in the 107th Congress would exempt most state and local 527 organizations from the requirements of P.L. 106-230. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1965/
Renewal Communities and New Markets Initiatives: Legislation in the 106th Congress
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Wagnon v. Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation:
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Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax and generation-skipping transfer tax are scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. This is because all tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal — or retain but alter — the estate tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6046/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5445/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5446/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5447/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5448/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 109th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16), the estate tax and generation-skipping transfer tax are scheduled to be repealed effective January 1, 2010. But the estate tax repeal, and all other provisions of EGTRRA, are scheduled to sunset December 31, 2010. If the sunset provision is not repealed, or the law is not otherwise changed beforehand, in 2011 estate and gift tax law will return to what it would have been had EGTRRA never been enacted. The unified estate and gift taxes will be reinstated with an exclusion amount of $1 million. The maximum tax rate will revert to 55%. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7434/
Estate Tax: Legislative Activity in 2002
The provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. On April 18, 2002, the House passed legislation, H.R. 586, that would remove the sunset provision and thereby make permanent all other provisions of the tax cut law enacted in June 2001. This includes making permanent the repeal of the estate tax. On June 6, the House passed a free-standing estate tax repeal bill. H.R. 2143 would remove the sunset provision of EGTRRA solely with respect to the estate tax provisions of the 2001 Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3457/
Estate Tax: Legislative Activity in 2002
The provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. On April 18, 2002, the House passed legislation, H.R. 586, that would remove the sunset provision and thereby make permanent all other provisions of the tax cut law enacted in June 2001. This includes making permanent the repeal of the estate tax. On June 6, the House passed a free-standing estate tax repeal bill. H.R. 2143 would remove the sunset provision of EGTRRA solely with respect to the estate tax provisions of the 2001 Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3458/
Extending the Internet Tax Moratorium and Related Issues
The Internet Tax Freedom Act, enacted in 1998, placed a 3-year moratorium on the ability of state and local governments 1) to impose new taxes on Internet access or 2) to impose multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. It grandfathered existing taxes on Internet access. The original moratorium expired on October 21, 2001. Numerous bills to extend the moratorium were introduced in the first session of the 107th Congress. The Congress approved H.R. 1552 (P.L. 107-75, enacted November 28, 2001) which extended the prior moratorium by 2 years, until November 1, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3472/