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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Taxpayer Protections in the IRS Restructuring Bill: Attorneys' Fees and Damages for IRS Abuses
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Taxpayer Protections in the Proposed IRS Restructuring Act: Burden of Proof
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Taxpayer Protection and IRS Accountability Act of 2003, H.R. 1528
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527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10190/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10189/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. The report will be updated as new proposals are reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1156/
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change
This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. For developments after the enactment of P.L. 106-230, please see CRS Report RS20650, 527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9625/
527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230
On July 1, 2000, President Clinton signed H.R. 4762, P.L. 106-230. The law amended the Internal Revenue Code [IRC] to require political organizations described in IRC § 527 to disclose their political activities, if they were not already required to do so by the Federal Election Campaign Act [FECA]. This report summarizes the three major changes made by the law and some of the major responses to the legislation. First, all 527 organizations which expect to have over $25,000 in gross receipts during a taxable year and which are not required to report to the Federal Election Commission [FEC] are required to register with the IRS within 24 hours of their formation, whether they are involved in state, local, or federal elections. Second, 527 issue advocacy organizations, which previously reported neither to the IRS nor the FEC, are required to file regular disclosure statements with the IRS. Third, all 527 organizations with gross receipts in excess of $25,000 per year are required to file annual reports with the IRS. The registration statements, disclosure forms, and annual reports will be made public. H.R. 527 and S. 527 in the 107th Congress would exempt most state and local 527 organizations from the requirements of P.L. 106-230. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1965/
Renewal Communities and New Markets Initiatives: Legislation in the 106th Congress
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Wagnon v. Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation:
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Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5445/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5447/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5448/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5446/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax and generation-skipping transfer tax are scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. This is because all tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal — or retain but alter — the estate tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6046/
Estate Tax Legislation in the 109th Congress
Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16), the estate tax and generation-skipping transfer tax are scheduled to be repealed effective January 1, 2010. But the estate tax repeal, and all other provisions of EGTRRA, are scheduled to sunset December 31, 2010. If the sunset provision is not repealed, or the law is not otherwise changed beforehand, in 2011 estate and gift tax law will return to what it would have been had EGTRRA never been enacted. The unified estate and gift taxes will be reinstated with an exclusion amount of $1 million. The maximum tax rate will revert to 55%. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7434/
Estate Tax: Legislative Activity in 2002
The provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. On April 18, 2002, the House passed legislation, H.R. 586, that would remove the sunset provision and thereby make permanent all other provisions of the tax cut law enacted in June 2001. This includes making permanent the repeal of the estate tax. On June 6, the House passed a free-standing estate tax repeal bill. H.R. 2143 would remove the sunset provision of EGTRRA solely with respect to the estate tax provisions of the 2001 Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3457/
Estate Tax: Legislative Activity in 2002
The provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. On April 18, 2002, the House passed legislation, H.R. 586, that would remove the sunset provision and thereby make permanent all other provisions of the tax cut law enacted in June 2001. This includes making permanent the repeal of the estate tax. On June 6, the House passed a free-standing estate tax repeal bill. H.R. 2143 would remove the sunset provision of EGTRRA solely with respect to the estate tax provisions of the 2001 Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3458/
Extending the Internet Tax Moratorium and Related Issues
The Internet Tax Freedom Act, enacted in 1998, placed a 3-year moratorium on the ability of state and local governments 1) to impose new taxes on Internet access or 2) to impose multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. It grandfathered existing taxes on Internet access. The original moratorium expired on October 21, 2001. Numerous bills to extend the moratorium were introduced in the first session of the 107th Congress. The Congress approved H.R. 1552 (P.L. 107-75, enacted November 28, 2001) which extended the prior moratorium by 2 years, until November 1, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3472/
H.R. 8: The Death Tax Elimination Act of 2001
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Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress
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Internet Tax Bills in the 107th Congress: A Brief Comparison
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Internet Tax Bills in the 108th Congress
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Internet Tax Bills in the 108th Congress
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Internet Tax Bills in the 108th Congress
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Internet Tax Bills in the 108th Congress
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Internet Tax Legislation: Distinguishing Issues
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Internet Tax Legislation: Distinguishing Issues
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Internet Tax Legislation: Distinguishing Issues
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Step-Up vs. Carryover Basis for Capital Gains: Implications for Estate Tax Repeal
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Tax Expenditures Compared with Outlays by Budget Function: Fact Sheet
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Tax Reform Effects
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Raising the Tax Rates on High-Income Taxpayers: Pros and Cons
This report focuses on the debate over whether the top two marginal tax rates should be permitted to rise back to their 2001 levels, once the temporary tax provisions known as the "Bush tax cuts" expire on December 31, 2010. The report discusses arguments for and against raising the tax rates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29628/
Social Security and Medicare Taxes and Premiums: Fact Sheet
Financing for social security -- Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance -- and the Hospital Insurance part of Medicare is provided primarily by taxes levied on wages and net self-employment income. Financing for the Supplementary Medical Insurance portion of Medicare is provided by premiums from enrollees and payments from the government. This report describes these taxes and premiums. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26042/
Conservation Reserve Program Payments: Self-Employment Income, Rental Income, or Something Else?
This report outlines the history of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the changing positions of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), pertinent case law, and other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). Several possible approaches to the taxation of CRP payments are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461958/
Oil and Natural Gas Industry Tax Issues in the FY2014 Budget Proposal
This report discusses the FY2014 budget proposal that outlines a set of proposals, framed as the termination of tax preferences, that would potentially increase the taxes paid by the oil and natural gas industries, especially those of the independent producers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267809/
The Retirement Savings Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 authorized a non-refundable tax credit of up to $1,000 for eligible individuals who contribute to an IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement plan. The maximum credit is 50% of retirement contributions up to $2,000. This credit can reduce the amount of taxes owed, but the tax credit itself is non-refundable. The maximum credit is the lesser of either $1,000 or the tax that the individual would have owed without the credit. Eligibility is based on the taxpayer's adjusted gross income. The eligible income brackets are not indexed to inflation. Taxpayers under age 18 or who are full-time students are not eligible for the credit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10233/
Pension Reform: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001
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Pension Reform: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001
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Pensions and Retirement Saving Plans: Comparison of H.R. 1776 with Current Law
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Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: A Summary of Recent Data
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Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: Trends from 2001 to 2004
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The Retirement Savings Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet
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Superfund Taxes or General Revenues: Future Funding Issues for the Superfund Program
This report discusses the role of dedicated taxes and other sources of revenue in funding the Hazardous Substance Superfund Trust Fund. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98045/
Fact Sheet on Congressional Tax Proposals in the 108th Congress
After passing a major multi-year tax cut in Mid-2001 (which was sunsetted after ten years) and a stimulus bill in 2002, Congress is considering energy tax subsidies, tax incentives for charitable giving deductions, pension diversification in the wake of the ENRON problems, and tax shelters. The House has passed several bills that would make the multiyear tax cut permanent as well as a bill to speed up certain provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5468/
Fact Sheet on Congressional Tax Proposals in the 108th Congress
This report discusses the President, House and Senate tax proposals. Beyond the comprehensive tax proposals, both the House and the Senate have considered a range of targeted tax proposals. One of the first tax-related measures considered during the 108th Congress would provide tax reductions to armed services personnel. Congress has also initiated reconsideration of legislation not completed in the 107th Congress: tax incentives for charitable giving deductions, pension diversification, energy taxation, and tax shelters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5469/
Fact Sheet on Congressional Tax Proposals in the 108th Congress
This report discusses the President, House and Senate tax proposals. Beyond the comprehensive tax proposals, both the House and the Senate have considered a range of targeted tax proposals. One of the first tax-related measures considered during the 108th Congress would provide tax reductions to armed services personnel. Congress has also initiated reconsideration of legislation not completed in the 107th Congress: tax incentives for charitable giving deductions, pension diversification, energy taxation, and tax shelters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5471/
Fact Sheet on Congressional Tax Proposals in the 108th Congress
This report discusses the President, House and Senate tax proposals. Beyond the comprehensive tax proposals, both the House and the Senate have considered a range of targeted tax proposals. One of the first tax-related measures considered during the 108th Congress would provide tax reductions to armed services personnel. Congress has also initiated reconsideration of legislation not completed in the 107th Congress: tax incentives for charitable giving deductions, pension diversification, energy taxation, and tax shelters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5470/
IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule
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A Tax Limitation Constitutional Amendment: Issues and Options Concerning a Super-Majority Requirement
Proposals to limit the federal government’s authority to raise taxes have been made several times in recent years. Most frequently, these proposals call for limits on Congress’s ability to pass revenue measures. Typically, limitation proposals would allow increases in tax revenues only under one of two circumstances. First, tax revenues could increase under existing tax laws as a result of economic upturns. Alternatively, they could increase because of a new law, but only if it were passed by a super-majority (typically two-thirds or three-fifths). Questions about how such proposals might be applied in practice have not been clearly answered. Congress has previously considered such proposals in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001. In each case the proposal has failed to achieve the two-thirds majority necessary for passage. Most recently, the House considered H.J.Res. 96 on June 12, 2002. The measure failed to achieve the necessary two-thirds, 227-178. This report will be updated to reflect any further legislative actions on such proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5394/