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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Date: May 22, 2015
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Description: Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth, and research and development (R&D) serves as the lifeblood of innovation. The federal government encourages businesses to invest more in R&D than they otherwise would in several ways, including a tax credit for increases in spending on qualified research above a base amount. This report describes the current status of the credit, summarizes its legislative history, discusses policy issues it raises, and describes legislation to modify and extend it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945 (Updated)

Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945 (Updated)

Date: December 12, 2012
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Description: Income tax rates are at the center of many recent policy debates over taxes. Some policymakers argue that raising tax rates, especially on higher income taxpayers, to increase tax revenues is part of the solution for long-term debt reduction. This report examines the top tax rates since 1945 and analyzes the ways in which tax rates affect economic growth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Jackson, Pamela J.
Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule

IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule

Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Ripy, Thomas B.
Description: Married couples filing joint tax returns are liable individually and as a couple for all taxes due on the return with a limited exemption for innocent spouses. This report discusses joint and several liability, which has been the subject of much criticism and calls for reform or elimination.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Date: November 26, 2002
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
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Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
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Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions, rules or regulations upon lobbying activities of non-profit organizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT): Income Entry Points and “Take Back” Effects

The Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT): Income Entry Points and “Take Back” Effects

Date: September 17, 2004
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg
Description: This report examines the alternative minimum tax for individuals (AMT), which was originally enacted to ensure that high-income taxpayers paid a fair share of the federal income tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Tax Incentives in the 108th Congress: A Comparison of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 6 and the Senate Finance Committee Amendment

Energy Tax Incentives in the 108th Congress: A Comparison of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 6 and the Senate Finance Committee Amendment

Date: August 19, 2003
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Description: This report discusses energy taxes incentives, which have long been an integral component of this nation’s energy policy. Efforts to significantly expand existing energy tax subsidies have been undertaken since the 106th Congress, but controversy over various non-tax energy policy provisions — corporate average fuel economy standards, the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, etc. — have helped stall the legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gasoline Excise Tax—Historical Revenues: Fact Sheet

Gasoline Excise Tax—Historical Revenues: Fact Sheet

Date: September 16, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis A.
Description: The federal government has levied a tax on gasoline since 1932. This report provides a table that examines this tax since its inception.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Certain Temporary Tax Provisions Scheduled to Expire in 2009 (“Extenders”)

Certain Temporary Tax Provisions Scheduled to Expire in 2009 (“Extenders”)

Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report discusses numerous temporary tax provisions exist in the tax code. Often referred to as “extenders,” these provisions were originally enacted with an expiration date that has then been temporarily extended, in some cases numerous times.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Excise Tax on Tires: Where the Rubber Meets the Road

Federal Excise Tax on Tires: Where the Rubber Meets the Road

Date: October 6, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis A. & Jackson, Pamela J.
Description: This report examines the history of the federal excise tax on tires. The excise tax on tires was first levied in 1918 mainly because of revenue needs brought about by World War I. The tax was reduced after the war, and then repealed in 1926. The levy was reintroduced during the Great Depression at a time when federal individual income tax revenues were plummeting, and was increased to help finance World War II. Today, the premise for the excise tax on tires is that heavier vehicles cause greater damage to both roadways and bridges, and that the excise tax on tires resembles a pricing mechanism that is a proxy for highway wear-and-tear charges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Qualified Charitable Distributions from Individual Retirement Accounts: Features and Legislative History

Qualified Charitable Distributions from Individual Retirement Accounts: Features and Legislative History

Date: February 4, 2015
Creator: Topoleski, John J. & Sidor, Gary
Description: A provision of the Pension Protection Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-280) allows tax-free distributions from Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) for charitable purposes. This report describes the IRA Qualified Charitable Distribution (QCD) provision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report tracks the evolution and content of the Internet tax freedom bills. In general, the bills would impose a federal moratorium on the ability of state and local governments to impose taxes on certain aspects of the Internet and would establish a temporary federal commission to study selected issues and make policy recommendations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers

Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers

Date: July 5, 2007
Creator: Jickling, Mark & Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report provides background on hedge funds and private equity and summarizes the tax issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Value-Added Tax as a New Revenue Source

Value-Added Tax as a New Revenue Source

Date: December 22, 2005
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report discusses the valueadded tax (VAT), which has been frequently discussed as a full or partial replacement for the U.S. income tax system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Major Tax Issues in the 108th Congress

Major Tax Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: September 9, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Description: Tax policy is frequently considered by policymakers as a tool for boosting economic performance in various ways, and the likely economic effects of tax policy are often hotly debated. A brief overview of the current economic context is thus a good starting point for looking at tax issues facing the current Congress. This report provides an overview of major tax issues. The report begins by describing three aspects of the economic context in which the tax policy debate during 2004 is likely to occur: the general state of the U.S. economy; the position of the federal budget; and the level of taxes in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Estate Tax Legislation in the 110th Congress

Estate Tax Legislation in the 110th Congress

Date: February 14, 2008
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report examines current legislation regarding estate taxes. Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16), the estate tax exclusion is scheduled to continue to rise, from $2 million for decedents dying in 2008, to $3.5 million in 2009. The estate tax is repealed for decedents dying in 2010 only.
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Tax Credits for Individual Development Accounts

Tax Credits for Individual Development Accounts

Date: February 8, 2006
Creator: Scott, Christine
Description: An individual development account (IDA) is a structured savings instrument for lower income individuals. This report discusses legislation introduced in the 108th Congress to establish IDA programs utilizing tax benefits to encourage program development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Issues: National Public Opinion

Tax Issues: National Public Opinion

Date: May 28, 1998
Creator: Coleman, Kevin
Description: This report provides a sample of public opinion questions concerning the current tax system, the Internal Revenue Service, and proposals for tax reform. It will be updated as new poll results become available. The report is for the use of Members as they consider legislation currently before the 105 Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Application Process for Seeking 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Status

Application Process for Seeking 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Status

Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Description: Charities and other entities seeking tax-exempt status as 501(c)(3) organizations generally must apply to the Internal Revenue Service. This report provides an overview of the application process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation Taxes and the Airport and Airway Trust Fund

Aviation Taxes and the Airport and Airway Trust Fund

Date: August 12, 1997
Creator: Fischer, John W.
Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of excise tax revenues for the airport and airway trust fund, which has been a contentious issue for the last two years. Most of the concern during this period was about future funding needs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The issue, somewhat unexpectedly, became an element of the tax plans embedded in House and Senate FY1998 budget reconciliation proposals. The House proposed a major structural change in how aviation taxes would be imposed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Average Effective Corporate Tax Rates: 1959 to 2005

Average Effective Corporate Tax Rates: 1959 to 2005

Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report examines average effective corporate tax rates of domestic nonfinancial corporations. Generally, the average effective corporate tax rate is total corporate tax receipts divided by corporate profits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department