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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 109th Congress

Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Noto, Nonna A
Description: This report discusses issues of state and local taxation of Internet transactions because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Estate Tax Legislation in the 110th Congress

Estate Tax Legislation in the 110th Congress

Date: February 14, 2008
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report examines current legislation regarding estate taxes. Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16), the estate tax exclusion is scheduled to continue to rise, from $2 million for decedents dying in 2008, to $3.5 million in 2009. The estate tax is repealed for decedents dying in 2010 only.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Net Operating Losses: Proposed Extension of Carryback Period

Net Operating Losses: Proposed Extension of Carryback Period

Date: November 13, 2009
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Description: This report explains the current law regarding the tax treatment of net operating losses (NOLs). In addition, this report highlights a number of policy considerations relating to the extension of the NOL carryback period.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Statutory Individual Income Tax Rates and Other Elements of the Tax System: 1988 through 2008

Statutory Individual Income Tax Rates and Other Elements of the Tax System: 1988 through 2008

Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Shvedov, Maxim
Description: This report summarizes information about the tax brackets and other key elements of the tax system that determine taxpayer's statutory marginal tax rate. Such elements include tax brackets, exemptions, standard deductions, etc. Statutory individual income tax rates, also referred to as “statutory marginal tax rates,” are the rates of tax applicable to the last (marginal) increment of taxable income. Statutory rates play an important role in determining the real marginal tax rates, which affect taxpayers' economic behavior.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Tax Law Changes Effective January 1, 2002

Selected Tax Law Changes Effective January 1, 2002

Date: January 4, 2002
Creator: Morris, Marie B
Description: This report is a listing of the tax changes which were enacted during 2001 and effective at the beginning of 2002
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Tax Relief: Proposals in the 108th Congress and Their Economic Justification

Small Business Tax Relief: Proposals in the 108th Congress and Their Economic Justification

Date: May 9, 2003
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Description: This report examines the economic arguments for and against small business tax subsidies in the context of current congressional proposals to expand them. It begins with a brief description of current federal tax subsidies for small firms, moves on to consider the principal economic arguments for and against these subsidies, and concludes with a discussion of proposals in the 108th Congress to expand small business tax subsidies and their likely economic effects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Date: October 14, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. H.R. 6844 would provide a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Date: January 14, 2005
Creator: Scott, Christine
Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. Legislation was introduced in the 108th Congress that would have repealed the taxation of UC benefits, provided a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits, or transferred the proceeds from taxing UC benefits to the Unemployment Trust Fund. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Value-Added Tax as a New Revenue Source

Value-Added Tax as a New Revenue Source

Date: December 22, 2005
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report discusses the valueadded tax (VAT), which has been frequently discussed as a full or partial replacement for the U.S. income tax system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Average Effective Corporate Tax Rates: 1959 to 2005

Average Effective Corporate Tax Rates: 1959 to 2005

Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report examines average effective corporate tax rates of domestic nonfinancial corporations. Generally, the average effective corporate tax rate is total corporate tax receipts divided by corporate profits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Gap: Proposals in the 110th Congress to Require Brokers to Report Basis on Publicly Traded Securities

Tax Gap: Proposals in the 110th Congress to Require Brokers to Report Basis on Publicly Traded Securities

Date: October 8, 2008
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: Recent and projected large deficits and the need for revenue to offset spending or tax reduction proposals generated congressional and executive branch interest in different proposals to reduce the tax gap; and consequently, raise additional revenue. Proposals in the 110th Congress to require brokers to report adjusted basis on publicly traded securities sold by individuals are examined in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers

Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers

Date: December 3, 2009
Creator: Jickling, Mark & Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report provides background on hedge funds and private equity and summarizes the tax issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products: Rates and Revenues

Federal Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products: Rates and Revenues

Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Description: This report examines increases in excise tax rates on tobacco products contained in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33). Under that act, the increased rates on tobacco products became effective in two stages. The first scheduled increase in rates occurred on January 1, 2000, while the second increase in rates occurred two years later on January 1, 2002
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation

Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation

Date: February 3, 2005
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Noto, Nonna A.
Description: The Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA) placed a three-year moratorium on the ability of state and local governments to (1) impose new taxes on Internet access or (2) impose any multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. The act grandfathered the state and local access taxes that were “... generally imposed and actually enforced prior to October 1, 1998 ....” This report discusses issues of state and local taxation of Internet transactions because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Superfund Taxes or General Revenues: Future Funding Issues for the Superfund Program

Superfund Taxes or General Revenues: Future Funding Issues for the Superfund Program

Date: February 4, 2008
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.; Reisch, Mark & McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses the role of dedicated taxes and other sources of revenue in funding the Hazardous Substance Superfund Trust Fund.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Treaty Legislation in the 110th Congress: Explanation and Economic Analysis

Tax Treaty Legislation in the 110th Congress: Explanation and Economic Analysis

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report discusses the proposals that are designed to curb “treaty shopping” — instances where a foreign parent firm in one country receives its U.S.-source income through an intermediate subsidiary in a third country that is signatory to a tax-reducing treaty with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax-Exempt Organizations: Political Activity Restrictions and Disclosure Requirements

Tax-Exempt Organizations: Political Activity Restrictions and Disclosure Requirements

Date: September 11, 2007
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Description: This report examines the limitations that the Internal Revenue Code places on political activity -- including lobbying and campaign intervention -- by tax-exempt organizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tax Reform: An Overview of Proposals in the 111th Congress

Tax Reform: An Overview of Proposals in the 111th Congress

Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report examines three main categories of tax reform: fundamental tax reform, tax reform based on the elimination of the individual alternative minimum tax (AMT), and proposals for reforming the corporate income tax in the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Deductibility of State and Local Taxes

Federal Deductibility of State and Local Taxes

Date: September 28, 2007
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report provides a brief history of deductible state and local taxes, and discusses deduction for real estate property taxes, deductions for income, sales, and use taxes. The report also discusses policy alternatives and current legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues

Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues

Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Maguire, Steven
Description: This report discusses how the estate and gift tax works and examines various policy options. The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) repeals the estate tax after 2009. In the 108th Congress, some policymakers have proposed eliminating the sunset provision in the EGTRRA, thus making repeal of the estate tax permanent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals: Legislative Initiatives in the 110th Congress

The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals: Legislative Initiatives in the 110th Congress

Date: January 10, 2007
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A.
Description: This report discusses the alternative minimum tax (AMT) for individuals that was originally enacted to ensure that all taxpayers, especially high-income taxpayers, pay at least a minimum amount of federal taxes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report provides a basic explanation of how to calculate the federal estate tax liability for a taxable estate of any given size, using the schedule of graduated marginal tax rates and the applicable exclusion amount or the applicable credit amount for the year of death. The “applicable exclusion amount” is the amount of any decedent’s taxable estate that is free from tax. It is known informally as the estate tax “exemption.” The “applicable credit amount” or “unified credit” is the corresponding tax credit. It is equal to the tax that would be due on a taxable estate that is the size of the applicable exclusion amount.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Date: November 3, 2006
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Description: This report provides a basic explanation of how to calculate the federal estate tax liability for a taxable estate of any given size, using the schedule of graduated marginal tax rates and the applicable exclusion amount or the applicable credit amount for the year of death. The “applicable exclusion amount” is the amount of any decedent’s taxable estate that is free from tax. It is known informally as the estate tax “exemption.” The “applicable credit amount” or “unified credit” is the corresponding tax credit. It is equal to the tax that would be due on a taxable estate that is the size of the applicable exclusion amount.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Date: March 11, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report discusses the impact of taxes on international trade and investment has been debated for decades. Most recently, a variety of bills addressing international taxation have been introduced in the 110th Congress—some would cut taxes for U.S. firms overseas, while others would increase taxes on foreign investment. The debate over taxes and foreign outsourcing has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment; questions arise over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. The debate over international taxation has again become prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current system affects outsourcing, and whether policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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